Metaphors in Science

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Metaphors in Science

8 th

Int. Grade Science

Science Metaphors

The Earth is like a

“Ball”.

The Wetlands are like a

“Sponge”.

Chemical Bonding is like a

“Magnet”.

What is a Metaphor ?

Same words & phrases in creative ways to explain things to one another.

Encourages the listener to think - more creative or strange it is - more interesting it is.

More direct & uses less words to describe things.

Establishes a relationship of likeness.

Fills in the Gaps in language, could be used to create new meanings to difficult new concepts.

Metaphor Uses

Common & well understood experiences for complex & abstract information.

Lectures, creative writing, reviewing information,

& to teach new difficult concepts.

Everyday conversation uses of at least 4 metaphors per minute.

Many are “hidden” or “embedded” into our language.

Prompts original thoughts, creative thinking.

Wetlands Metaphor

Antelope Island & the

Great Salt Lake are surrounded by Wetlands that are very Valuable

(“Priceless”) to the area.

(Wetland Metaphor Handout / Video)

Commonly Used Metaphors - 1

“Quiet as a Mouse”

“Red as a Cherry”

“Strong as a Tree”

“Round like a Ball”

(Engine running)

(Santa’s Nose)

(Elephant’s Leg)

(Earth)

Science Common Metaphors - 2

“Acts like a Sponge”

(Wetlands)

“Clear as Glass”

(Atmosphere)

“Formed like a Snowball rolling down a hill”

(Oolitic Sand)

“Slippery like Ice”

(Electrons on Copper Wire)

“Stuck-Up”

doesn’t need anyone (Noble Gases)

“Magnetic Connections”

(Chemical Bonding)

Metaphor Types

Visual Aid

– Object

Visual Drawing

– Cartoon / Picture

Written Metaphor

– Poem / Story

Verbal Metaphor

– Saying / Phrase

Acting / Role Playing

– Synectics /

Games

Metaphor Transfer

Taking a Familiar or Common Trait and used it to describe a New Ideas or Form of

Information.

Matching Similarities between Things

Making Emotion Connections

Use Language at Learners Level

Develop Common Uses & Descriptions

Add Creativity

Characteristics of Metaphors

Metaphors should include:

Vividness

Compactness

Expressibility

(Andrew Ortony)

Designing Metaphor Examples

Similarities to:

Structure / Style

Uses / Performance

Habits / Work

Size

Color

Material

Relates to another

Concept / Idea

Visual Metaphors

Words

Objects

Posters

Signs

Cartoons

Picture

Written Metaphor

Puns / Play on words

Descriptive Adjectives

Rhyming / Poetry

Sequencing

Humorous

Abstract

Similarities

“Sayings”

“Masterpiece” / “Acorn” / “Mountain” Articles

Verbal Metaphors

Computer works like a

“Brain”

Nervous System looks like a

“Tree”

Solar Systems looks like a

“Mobile”

Eyes work like an

“Camera”

Birds

“Zipper”

Feathers up their

Role Playing Metaphors

Synectics - Uses ANALOGIES

Process:

Be Creative

– New ideas, music, inventions

Self Expressive & Personal

Add Emotional Connection

Must be Understandable

Connections between Old & New Knowledge

Creative Analogies:

Personal Expressions

Acting Out Concepts, Objects, etc…

Synectics Analogy Samples

Create an “Analogy” with these topics.

Act it out.

“A Car Engine is like ………..”

“Erupting Volcano is like ………..”

“Electricity flowing through a wire is like ………..”

“Chemical Explosion is like ………..”

“Roller Coaster Ride is like ………..”

“Computer Processing is like ………..”

“Television is like ………..”

“Old Shoe is like ………..”

Teacher Objectives

Teacher

will demonstrate

visual styles, written, visual aids, games, and role play uses for metaphors in learning new science concepts.

Teacher

will give example

notes and picture reviews using visual metaphors.

Teacher

will instruct the students

on the steps and designs to create metaphors in science.

Teacher

will give evaluations and feedback

students progress and completed projects.

to

Teacher Instructed

Demonstrations

Metaphoric Examples:

Sample Visual Aids

Picture Page Reviews

Games of “Win, Lose, and Draw” / “Charades”

Role Playing - Synectics

Chemistry Demonstrations

Sayings, Vivid Descriptions

Final outcome:

Student Created Visual Aids

– Metaphoric Projects

Student Objectives

Students will be

introduced to new concepts

and terms in this Chemistry unit.

Students will

create new “visual aids”

or/and written metaphors examples that could be used to explain other key science concepts or terms in

Chemistry.

Students will

learn to write and connect metaphors

to new terms and concepts in the

Chemistry unit with applied knowledge from their

English Metaphor unit.

Student Objectives con’t

Students will

use visual aids

to experiment writing metaphors and brainstorming connected to science concepts.

Students will

demonstrate their metaphoric knowledge

by participating in Role Playing and

“Win, Lose, and Draw” games as teams.

Students will

design

a Metaphor form that explains a Concept in Science.

Student’s Metaphors will be

used for teaching and reviewing a concept

.

Project Assignment

Select

1 Metaphor Type to design:

“Picture Page”

- Review Handout

“Picture Notes”

- Teaching Handout

“Poster Illustration”

- Poster

“Visual Aid”

“Game”

– Model or Object

– “Win, Lose, or Draw” or “Password”

“Written Saying”

– Mnemonics

“Role Playing”

– Synectics / Charades

Metaphor Assignment

3.

4.

5.

1.

2.

6.

Finding Out

the Definition / Concept

Brainstorming

all the Possibilities you can use

“Play”

with you ideas

– Finalize on one

Design

the connections

Develop

a metaphor form to illustrate the new concept. (Chose 1 form)

Present

metaphor to Class

Brainstorming

Concept Mapping Ideas

Venn Diagram

– Similarities / Differences

Different Large Cats

– like Lions have a male leader and female hairium

Like a Cheetah the mother does the raising of the offspring's

(single parent)

Concept Mapping

– Webbing

Connections to concepts

Student Motivation

Peer Review / Peer Recognition

Peer Support

– “Scaffolding”

Competition

Challenge / Competition

Positive Feedback

Candy / Rewards

Grade / Teacher Recognition

Zone of Proximal Learning

Final Assessments

Peer Understanding of Created Metaphors

Participation in Activities / Discussions

Pop Quizzes / Test

Research / Brainstorming / Concept

Mapping activities

Creation of a Metaphor for a Concept

Rubric for Metaphor Project

Self Assessment

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