Chapter Introduction Section 1: Sleep and Dreams Section 2: Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation Section 3: Drugs and Consciousness Chapter Objectives · Section 1 Sleep and Dreams Discuss the four stages of sleep and the period of dreaming. Chapter Objectives · Section 2 Hypnosis, Biofeedback, and Meditation Understand that hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation are altered states of consciousness that can occur while we are awake. Chapter Objectives · Section 3 Drugs and Consciousness Describe psychoactive drugs and how they interact with the central nervous system to alter consciousness. Main Idea Sleep—an essential state of consciousness—involves four stages and a period of dreaming. Vocabulary • consciousness • nightmares • REM sleep • night terrors • circadian rhythm • sleepwalking • insomnia • sleep apnea • narcolepsy Objectives • Describe the research related to sleep and dreams. • List and discuss sleep disorders. How many hours do you usually sleep at night? A. 4 hours or less B. 5–6 hours 0% D A 0% A B C 0% D C D. More than 8 A. B. C. 0% D. B C. 7–8 hours Sleep and Dreams • Consciousness is a state of awareness. • Consciousness can range from alertness to nonalertness. Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Why Do We Sleep? • Sleep is characterized by unresponsiveness to the environment and usually limited physical mobility. Why Do We Sleep? (cont.) • Theories: – It’s a restorative process – Primitive hibernation: we sleep to conserve energy. – An adaptive process: sleep kept humans out of harm’s way at night in earlier times. – A way to clear our minds of useless information. – We sleep to dream. How many different stages of sleep do we go through? A. Two B. Three C. Four D. Five 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Stages of Sleep • Stage I—your pulse slows, your muscles relax, your breathing becomes uneven and your brain waves grow irregular. • Stage II—your brain waves shift from lowamplitude, high frequency waves to high amplitude, low frequency waves; your eyes roll slowly from side to side. • Stage III—large-amplitude delta waves begin to sweep your brain every second or so. Stages of Sleep (cont.) • Stage IV—large, regular delta waves occurring more than 50% of the time indicate this level; talking out loud, bedwetting, sleepwalking all happen at this stage. • REM sleep—a stage of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming. Stages of Sleep (cont.) • Every 90 minutes or so you shift between Stage IV sleep and REM sleep (the length of REM sleep increases each time). Patterns of Sleep What percentage of time sleeping does a person stay in REM sleep? A. 25 B. 50 0% D A 0% A B 0% C D C D. 100 A. B. 0% C. D. B C. 75 How Much Sleep? • Human spend approximately one-third of their lives in sleep. • The amount of sleep someone needs varies, but it does appear that everyone sleeps and that both REM and NREM sleep are important for normal functioning. How Much Sleep? (cont.) • Circadian rhythm—a biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses within a time period of approximately 24.18 hours. • These rhythms operate even when normal day and night cues are removed. Approximately what percentage of a lifetime do humans spend asleep? A. Two-thirds B. One-third C. Three-fourths D. Two-fourths 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Sleep Disorders • Insomnia • Sleep apnea • Narcolepsy • Nightmares • Night terrors • Sleepwalking What are some dangers associated with these sleep disorders? A. Quality of life B. Personal health issues C. Industrial/traffic accidents D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Dreams • The first few dreams of the night are composed of vague thoughts left over from the day. • As the night goes on, dreams become longer and more vivid and dramatic (especially during REM sleep). Dreams (cont.) • Most dreams involve either strenuous recreational activities or passive events. • A large percentage of emotions experienced in dreams are negative. • Dreams occur in real time. Dreams (cont.) • Theories of why we dream: – Many people, such as Freud, believe that dreams contain hidden meaning. – The Inuits believe that dreaming is a way to interact with the spiritual world. – Some social scientists believe that dreams serve no function. – One dream researcher believes that dreams help us solve problems. – One theorist believes that dreams are the brain’s way of removing certain unneeded memories. Dreams (cont.) • Daydreaming requires a low level of awareness and involves fantasizing, or idle but directed thinking, while we are awake. Dreams (cont.) • The purpose of daydreaming: – Reminding us of, or preparing us for, future events. – It may improve our creativity by generating thought processes. – It may allow us to control our emotions. Do you agree with Freud in that dream interpretation is valid? A. Very much so B. Somewhat C. Not really D. Not at all 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Main Idea Hypnosis, biofeedback, and meditation are altered states of consciousness that can occur when we are awake. Vocabulary • hypnosis • posthypnotic suggestion • biofeedback • meditation Objectives • Determine how hypnosis relates to consciousness. • Describe research into such techniques as biofeedback and meditation. Which of the following uses of hypnosis do you believe would be the most effective? A. Quit smoking B. Lose weight C. Manage stress D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D What is hypnosis? • Hypnosis is a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility. • Mutual trust between the hypnotist and the participant is important. Franz Anton Mesmer What is hypnosis? (cont.) • Theories about hypnosis: – Theodore Barber believes that hypnosis is not a special state of consciousness but simply the result of suggestibility. – Neodissociation theory—Ernest Hilgard believes that consciousness includes many different aspects that may become separated, or dissociated, during hypnosis. What is hypnosis? (cont.) – “Hidden observer”—a portion of the personality that watches and reports what happens to the hypnotized person. – Some theorists believe that hypnotized people behave as they do because they have accept the role of a hypnotized subject. What is hypnosis? (cont.) • Hypnosis can be used for medical and therapeutic reasons: – Posthypnotic suggestion—a suggestion made during hypnosis that influences the participant’s behavior afterward. – Hypnotic analgesia refers to a reduction of pain after patients have undergone hypnosis. What is hypnosis? (cont.) – Therapists can also use hypnosis to help clients reveal their problems or gain insight into their lives. In relation to hypnosis, who do you most agree with? A. Theodore Barber B. Ernest Hilgard C. Franz Anton Mesmer 0% A A. A B. B C.0% C B 0% C Biofeedback • Biofeedback—the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines that monitor the states to be controlled. • Biofeedback has been used to teach people to control a wide variety of physiological responses. Biofeedback is used to teach people to control a wide variety of what? A. Brain waves (EEG) B. Heart rate C. Blood pressure D. All of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Meditation • Meditation involves the focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation. Meditation (cont.) • Three major approaches: – Transcendental meditation involves the mental repetition of a mantra, usually a Sanskrit phrase. – Mindfulness meditation focuses on the present moment. – Breath meditation is concentrating on one’s respiration—the process of inhaling and exhaling. Which type of meditation focuses on the present moment? A. Transcendental B. Mindfulness C. Breath 0% A A. A B. B C.0% C B 0% C Main Idea Psychoactive drugs interact with the central nervous system to alter consciousness. Vocabulary • psychoactive drugs • marijuana • hallucinations • hallucinogens • LSD Objectives • Describe the effects drugs have on consciousness. • Define drug abuse. How Drugs Work • Psychoactive drug • Drug molecules act like neurotransmitters and hook onto the dendrites of neurons and send out their own chemical messages. Some Psychoactive Drugs Marijuana • The active ingredient in marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which occurs naturally in the common weed Cannabis Sativa. • The effects of the drug vary somewhat from person to person, the setting in which the drug is taken, and the user’s past experience. Marijuana (cont.) • Negative effects: – It might be more damaging to the lungs than cigarette use (it may cause lung cancer). – It disrupts memory formation. – Long-term use can lead to dependence. – Adults using marijuana scored lower than equal-IQ nonusers on tests. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: Marijuana can be psychologically addictive? A. Strongly agree B. Agree C. Neither agree or disagree D. Disagree 0% A A. A B. B C 0%C. 0% D. D B C 0% D Hallucinations • Hallucinations are perceptions that have no direct external cause. Hallucinations (cont.) • The following may cause hallucinations: – Hypnosis – Dreaming – Meditation – Lack of sleep – Drugs – Periods of high emotion and concentration – Withdrawal from a drug – A psychological breakdown – Daydreams Hallucinations (cont.) • Hallucinations may occur when portions of the brain that respond to incoming stimuli become disorganized while the entire central nervous system is aroused. Can all hallucinations be predicted or avoided? A. Yes B. No C. Both A and B D. None of these 0% A A. A B. B 0%C. 0% C D. D B C 0% D Hallucinogens • Hallucinogens, or psychedelics, are drugs that often produce hallucinations. • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is one of the most powerful drugs known. Hallucinogens (cont.) • Some of the effects: – Perceptual hallucinations – Dissociation with self – Distortion of time – Panic attacks What is the most common unpleasant side affect of LSD? A. Panic attacks B. Acne C. Blindness D. Diabetes 0% A A. A B. B C. 0%C 0% D. D B C 0% D Opiates • Opiates are also called narcotics, and include opium, morphine, and heroin. • They are physically addictive and improper use can result in death. Opiates (cont.) • Effects: – Analgesia – Euphoria – Constipation Which of the following are included in narcotics category? A. Opium B. Alcohol C. LSD D. None of the above 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Alcohol • This is the most widely used and abused mind-altering substance in the United States. • It is a depressant that serves to inhibit the brain’s normal functions. Alcohol (cont.) • Effects: – Loss of social restraint or self-control – Slurred speech – Blurred vision – Impaired judgment and memory – Permanent brain and liver damage Have you felt peer pressure, or an expectation, to use alcohol? A. Very much so B. Somewhat C. Not very much D. None at all 0% A A. B. C. 0% D. B A B C 0% D C 0% D Drug Abuse and Treatment • Drug abusers are people who regularly use illegal drugs or excessively use legal drugs. Drug Abuse and Treatment (cont.) • Reasons for use: – Boredom – To fit in with peers – To gain self confidence – To forget about problems – To relax/feel good Drug Abuse and Treatment (cont.) • Risks: – Danger of death or injury – Damage to health – Legal consequences – Destructive behavior Drug Abuse and Treatment (cont.) • Treatment for drug abuse involves these steps: – The abuser must admit that he or she has a problem. – He or she must enter a treatment program and/or get therapy. – He or she must remain drug free. What are some other risks associated with drug use? A. An overwhelming and compulsive desire to obtain and use drugs B. Addiction C. Loss of control D. All of the above 0% A A. A B. B 0% C.0%C D. D B C 0% D Freud’s Levels of Consciousness Sigmund Freud identified three levels of consciousness. In his approach to consciousness, he claimed that preconscious ideas are not in your awareness now, but you are able to recall them with some effort. Unconscious ideas are hidden and unretrievable. Patterns of Sleep The top diagram shows the passage of a sleeper through the various stages of sleep over a seven-hour period. The bottom diagram shows the patterns of electrical activity (EEGs) in the brain that correspond to the various stages of sleep. The EEG pattern shown for being awake is one that occurs when a person is resting quietly with eyes closed. Some Psychoactive Drugs Psychoactive drugs influence how we sense and perceive things and modify our moods, feelings, emotions, and thoughts. Franz Anton Mesmer 1734–1815 “Truth is nothing but a path traced between errors.” Chapter Concepts Transparencies Brain Waves During Sleep Select a transparency to view. consciousness: a state of awareness, including a person’s feelings, sensations, ideas, and perceptions REM sleep: a stage if sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, a high level of brain activity, a deep relaxation of the muscles, and dreaming circadian rhythm: the rhythm of activity and inactivity lasting approximately one day insomnia: the failure to get enough sleep at night in order to fell rested the next day sleep apnea: a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble breathing while asleep narcolepsy: a condition characterized by suddenly falling asleep or feeling very sleepy during the day nightmares: unpleasant dreams night terrors: sleep disruptions that occur during Stage IV of sleep, involving screaming, panic or confusion sleepwalking: walking or carrying out behavior while asleep hypnosis: a state of consciousness resulting from a narrowed focus of attention and characterized by heightened suggestibility posthypnotic suggestion: a suggestion made during hypnosis that influenced the participant’s behavior afterward biofeedback: the process of learning to control bodily states with the help of machines monitoring the states to be controlled meditation: the focusing of attention to clear one’s mind and produce relaxation psychoactive drugs: chemicals that affect the nervous system and result in altered consciousness marijuana: the dried leaves and flowers of Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa) that product an altered state of consciousness when smoked or ingested hallucinations: perceptions that have no direct external cause hallucinogens: drugs that often produce hallucinations LSD: a potent psychedelic drug that produces distortions of perception and thought To use this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. 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