Cuba Overview - CLIO History Journal

90 miles south of Miami, FL
Socialist government--elections are not open to the people
Communist system-strong government control
President: Raul Castro, since Feb. 2008
Major Holidays:
-January 1- New Year’s and Anniversary of the Revolution
-May 1- International Day of the Worker
-July 26- Anniversary of the Moncada Barracks Attack
A. Pre-Columbian Society
1. Taino and Carib Indians
2. Communal Society
3. Wiped out by European Colonization
B. Spanish Colonization
1. Christopher Columbus--Oct. 27, 1492
2. Seen as exotic paradise-vegetation and indigenous people
3. Indigenous killed, worked to death, or died of disease
4. Imported slaves from Africa
5. Hierarchy
a. Slaves
b. Free People of Color
c. Creoles-European descent b. Americas
d. Peninsulares-European descent b. Spain
C. Independence
1. 2 Wars
a. 10-years war 1868-1878
i. Grito de Yara-call for abolition
ii. Complete emancipation for slaves-1886
b. 1895-1898
i. Jose Marti-writer who led charge
ii. U.S. got involved over battleship Maine
iii. Spain ceded to the U.S. not Cuba
iv. Cuba became U.S. protectorate
D. Psuedo-Colony
1. U.S. intervened when saw fit
2. U.S. influenced elections
3. U.S. controlled Cuban exports (sugar, tobacco)
4. U.S. tourists flocked to Cuba
E. Cuban Revolution
1. 1st attempt 1953-Moncada Barracks
a. Fidel Castro
i. Imprisoned
ii. Exile in Mexico
iii. Returned to Cuba in Granma boat 1956
iv. With Che, Raul and Camilo Cienfuegos
F. Socialism in Cuba
1. Nationalization of Industries
2. Alliance with Soviet Union
3. Disintegration of Relationship with the U.S.
a. Bay of Pigs invasion-1961
b. U.S. embargo on trade and travel
4. National Campaigns
a. Literacy-99%
b. Sugar harvest- 10,000 tons in 1970
Cuban Propaganda
III. Cuban Life
A. Health Care
1. Free
2. Limited Resources--good and bad
3. Exports doctors to other countries
B. Education
1. Free from pre-school to University
2. High School is often boarding school
3. Scarce supplies
a. Oral rather than written exams
b. Limited computer use, esp. Internet
4. Mandatory military service at 18 yrs. for males
C. Religion
1. Religious Syncretism--Mixture of Spanish and
African beliefs
a. Catholicism
b. Afro-Cuban religions
i. Santería-Regla de Ocha
ii. Abakuá Secret Society
D. Food
1. Scarce--Need Libreta
2. pork, rice and beans--cajita
3. Fresh fruits
4. Food vendors
5. Coppelia-ice cream
E. Transportation
1. Scarce--long lines
a. Buses
b. Camellos
c. Communal taxis
d. Bici-taxis, buggies, coco taxis
e. 1950s cars
F. Agriculture
1. Tobacco
2. Fruits
a. Coconut
b. Bananas
c. Citrus
3. Coffee
G. Vegetation
1. Palm Trees
2. Hibiscus and other tropical flowers
Daily Life--Miscellaneous Photos
IV. Cuban Culture
A. Music and Dance
1. African influenced instruments
2. Son--Buena Vista Social Club
3. Salsa--Los Van Van
4. Hip-Hop/Reggaeton--Los Orishas
5. Rumba
B. Architecture
1. Colonial cities
2. Crumbling buildings
3. Restoration in historic neighborhoods
C. Movies
1. ICAIC- Cuban Institute of Cinematographic Art and
2. Censorship
3. Tomás Gutierrez Alea
a. Fresa y Chocolate, Memorias del Subdesarrollo
4. Movie theaters in Havana
D. Literature
1. Literate Culture
2. Cecilia Valdes--1800s-abolition novel
3. José Martí--poet, essayist
4. Nicolás Guillén-poet
5. Miguel Barnet, Nancy Morejón--Post-Revolution
6. Writers in Exile--Reinaldo Arenas
F. Art
1. Public Art
2. National Art Museum
3. Artists
a. Wilfredo Lam
b. Lidia Aguilera
V. Cuban Tourism
A. Beaches
B. Markets
C. Remnants of colonial cities