Economic Sectionalism Definitions - APUSHistory

European Immigration: In the mid-1800s, the population continued to double every 25 years. By 1860, the
original 13 states now had become 33 states. The Irish potato famine in the mid-1840s led to the death of 2 million
and saw many flee to the U.S. Americans hated the Irish (such as “NINA”—No Irish Need Apply); the Irish hated
competition with blacks for the low-paying jobs. 1 million Germans poured in between 1830s-1860s because of
crop failures and revolution/war of 1848. Nativists” – older Americans who were prejudiced against newcomers in
jobs, politics, and religion Catholicism became a major faith due to the immigration of the 1840s and 50s; they also
set out to build Catholic schools.
Transportation revolution: Improvements in transportation were needed for raw material transport. Lancaster
Turnpike – a hard road from Philadelphia to Lancaster, PA which brought economic expansion westward. The
federal government constructed the Cumberland Road AKA The National Road (Maryland - Illinois) with state and
federal money. Robert Fulton invented the first steamboat, the Clermont in 1807; steamboats were common by the
1830s this caused an increase of U.S. trade because there was no concern for weather and water current. This
contributed to the development of Southern and Western economies.
Market Revolution: Just as the political landscape of America changed, the economic scene did too. Essentially,
business began to grow up. The era of the self-supported farm was changing to a more modern, specialty driven
economy. These times widened the gap between the rich and poor. Cities saw the greatest extremes. Unskilled
workers were “drifters” from town to town looking for jobs. Social mobility existed, although rags-to-riches stories
were rare. The standard of living did rise; however, as wages did rise.
Industrial revolution: the revolution brought about mass industry. This was the definition of new time period
starting and a new type of economy
Samuel Slater: “Father of the Factory System” learned of textile machinery when working in British factory.
Built 1st cotton thread spinner in the U.S.
Family mills: Made clothes and other items from home and then sold for profit.
Interchangeable parts: Parts that can be used on any machine, this allowed the economy to boom because there
was less time in between fixing machines
Eli Whitney: He invented the cotton gin which caused the southern economy to boom and expand westward
Isaac singer: Created the sewing machine
Cotton gin: Allowed the southern economy to spread westward. Cotton was 50% of the south’s exported well
Water power: Water was used to power machines inside the mills
Assembly line: This made production faster and typically more efficient by adding more people to do the same
job, so that more people will produce more
Samuel Morse: Invented the telegraph
Mass Production: Mass production is when items for sale were made in factories allowing then to be made faster
with the use of machines
“Wage Slaves”: Were workers that worked for very little money and worked long hard shifts
Factory Girls: This was a time period where women started working under hard conditions and started having
fewer children.
Cyrus McCormick: Invented the mechanical mower-reaper to harvest grain
John Deere: Invented the steel plow that cut through hard soil and could be pulled by horses
King Cotton: It states that cotton was the primary crop of the south.
Planter aristocracy: The rich white plantation owners that dominated southern life. They consisted of mostly
English and Scottish settlers that owned large plantations.
Plantation system: The system of plantations throughout the South
Slave Labor: This was the labor type for the southern states. it is when a plantation owner buys a slave from
someone else and uses there practically free labor to work in the fields.
Cotton belt: The area of the United States consisting of most of the southeast that farmed extensive amounts of
cotton and similar cash crops.
Slave trade: The slave trade was a very controversial and it was the main argument in between the north and the
“Sold down river”: This is when slaves were sold deep into the south
Protectionism (tariffs): Tariffs put in place to help benefit American businesses