Satire & Catch-22 "They're trying to kill me," Yossarian told him calmly. "No one's trying to kill you," Clevinger cried. "Then why are they shooting at me?" Yossarian asked. "They're shooting at everyone," Clevinger answered. "They're trying to kill everyone." "And what difference does that make?" What is satire? - A form of critique that uses humor to mock or attack an individual or idea - Hopes to promote change; incite awareness of an issue https://www.youtube.com/watch/?v=AGi8jSG pr5U Types of Satire Satire may be classified by tone. Two main types: 1. Horatian: light-hearted tone; tolerant, witty, wise 2. Juvenalian: harsh, bitter tone; angry, caustic, resentful, personal Satirical Styles - Direct satire: directly (explicitly) stated - Indirect satire: communicated through characters in a situation Topics Satire tends to focus most on: - politics - religion - philosophy - sexuality - current events Satirical Elements: Irony - Irony: the actual intent is expressed in words that carry the opposite meaning - Verbal: an inversion of meaning - say one thing but mean the other - Dramatic: when the words or actions of a character carry a meaning unperceived by himself but understood by the audience - Socratic: Pretending ignorance to achieve an advantage over an opponent - Situational: A discrepancy between purpose and results Satirical Devices - Burlesque: Ridiculous exaggeration https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Oj8RIEQH7zA - Farce: Low comedy (fighting, horseplay, trickery, drunkenness) to exaggerate and provide laughter - Hyperbole: Exaggeration - Incongruity: Using incompatible elements to create a humorous contrast Portlandia: Chicken https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WAlWrT5 P2VI Satirical Devices - Invective: Tool of anger; name-calling, personal abuse - Knaves & Fools: “Rogues” and “suckers” who expose one another when they meet. Knaves exploit one who is “asking for it.” - Malapropism: Deliberate mispronunciation of a name or term to poke fun Types of Satire - Parody: Composition imitating or burlesquing another usually serious piece of work https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T24DPU-hkJM&t=46 - Sarcasm: Mocking or contemptuous remark - Travesty: Presents a serious subject frivolously to reduce it to its lowest level - Understatement: Lack of emphasis in expression Pun: Play on words Topics in Catch-22 1. Bureaucracy 2. Soldiers & Heroism 3. Religion and Faith 4. Language & Power https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8LazrN57iZg Satirizing “justice” "Justice?" The Colonel was astounded. "What is justice?" "Justice, sir –" "That's not what justice is," the colonel jeered, and began pounding the table again with his big fat hand. "That's what Karl Marx is. I'll tell you what justice is. Justice is a knee in the gut from the floor on the chin at night sneaky with a knife brought up down on the magazine of a battleship sandbagged underhanded in the dark without a word of warning. Garroting. That's what justice is when we've all got to be tough… Responding to Catch-22 Select a scene from the novel and analyze the impact of Heller’s choice of a satiric writing style. Explain Heller's purpose for utilizing satire in the scene. How does he achieve a satirical outcome (think about the literary devices at work in the scene: imagery, diction, symbolism, characterization? Would the scene/book have been as effective if it had been written in a more serious manner? How might readers’ responses to the scene/novel have been different? Would the scene/book have the same meaning if the style were different?