ED 557
August 6, 2011
 The brain seeks patterns, connections, & relationships between &
among prior & new learning.
(Gregory & Chatman,2001)
The ability to break a concept into its similar and dissimilar
characteristics allows students to understand (and often solve)
complex problems by analyzing them in a more simple way. Teachers
can either directly present similarities and differences, accompanied
by deep discussion and inquiry, or simply ask students to identify
similarities and differences on their own. While teacher-directed
activities focus on identifying specific items, student-directed
activities encourage variation and broaden understanding, research
shows. Research also notes that graphic forms are a good way to
represent similarities and differences.
 Applications:
* Use Venn diagrams or charts to compare and classify items.
* Engage students in comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors
and analogies
 Amount of homework should increase as students get
Minimal parent involvement.
Identify purpose of homework
Provide feedback for assignments
4 Types of Homework:
 Practice - work done repeatedly to increase
 Preparation - introduces new topics
 Extension - helps connect separate topics
 Creative - uses different skills to show what students have
 Representation through mental pictures and physical
 Marzano's recommendations for classroom practice:
 Create graphic representations through organizers
 Make physical models
 Generate mental pictures
 Drawing pictures and pictographs
 Engage in kinesthetic activities
Cooperative Learning is structuring a classroom in small groups that work
together making each group member's success dependent on the group's success
 Reasons from research why this method is so effective:
 Students learn significantly more, remember it longer, and develop better
critical-thinking skills than in traditional lecture classes.
 Students enjoy cooperative learning more than traditional lecture classes,
so they are more likely to attend class and participate.
 Students going to jobs that require teamwork have an advantage if they
have took part in cooperative learning because they have developed the
skills necessary to work on projects that need to be done in groups because
they are too difficult and complex for any one person to do in a reasonable
amount of time.
 Students learn how to work with a diverse group
 Techniques for effective grouping:
 Use a variety of criteria for grouping students
 Groups should not be organized often by ability
 Groups should be small and used on a regular basis
Positive outcomes for setting objectives
 Helps students to focus their attention on information directly related to
the objective throughout the lesson.
 Encourages students to personalize the learning goals identified for them
(Hill & Flynn, 2006, p. 27).
 Helps the teacher to focus on what they want the learner outcome to be and
helps the students to focus on what to study for the assessment later.
Guidelines for feedback
 “Feedback should be corrective” and specific.
 “Feedback should be timely.”
 “Feedback should be criterion-referenced.”
 “Students can Effectively provide some of their own feedback through self-
evaluation” (Hill & Flynn, 2006, p. 32).
 Across content areas and grade levels, Inquiry in the
classroom turns native curiosity to the learner's advantage.
Effective teachers: create these opportunities to guide
students through the process of:
Asking good questions
Generating hypotheses and predictions
Investigating through testing or research
Making observations
Analyzing and Communicating results.
Through active learning experiences, students deepen their
understanding of key concepts.
 Giving students a preview of what they are about to learn or
experience helps them activate prior knowledge. This
strategy gives students the opportunity to connect what
they already know to what they need to know.
 Questions should focus on what is central and most
important, not what you think will interest your students.
 Advance organizers are most useful for information that is
not easily presented in a well-organized manner.
 Graphic organizers show how new ideas or concepts relate,
providing students with a visual framework for acquiring
and organizing new information.
 Gregory, G. H., & Chapman, C. (2007). Differentiated Instructional
Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All. Corwin Press.
Hill, Jane D., & Flynn, Kathleen M. (2006). Classroom Instruction that
works with English Language Learners. Association for Supervision and
Curriculum Development.
New Faculty Resource Guide(2009). Virginia Commonwealth
University. Retrieved from
Northwest Educational Technology Consortium. (2005). ResearchBased Strategies. In Focus on Effectiveness. Retrieved August 4, 2011,
Learn about the four types of homework students may have. (2011).
Retrieved from
 Learn about the four types of homework students may have. (2011).
Retrieved from
 Thirteen Ed Online (2004). Retrieved from
 Starting Point-Teaching Entry Level Geoscience (2010). Retrieved from
 The Middle Web Listserv(2001). Retrieved from