class notes attached - stjohns

Giant Buddah, Hong Kong
Chapter 4
Religion or Philosophy or
You Decide….
Before we begin…
1. What comes to mind when you hear the word
“Buddha”? Why?
2. What are some common features between
Buddhism and other religions?
3. What is the difference between Buddhism and
other religions?
4. Do you believe it to be a religion or philosophy?
5. The word “karma” is connected to Buddhism,
what is your understanding of this concept?
6. What beliefs (if any) do you know of?
7. In your understanding how is meditation part of
8. What do you think is true Buddhist enlightenment?
Introduction & Basics
Buddhism  From
Sanskrit budhi
 Founder: Siddhartha
 More than
Introduction & Basics cont.
Being a Buddhist means
taking refuge in the Three
Jewels of Buddhism: the
Buddha, the Dharma, and
the Sangha
There is no…..
The Buddha evaluated the
Hindu teaching of atman
and said if the soul was
purely God then it was no
from the ability to behave
and contemplate in
complete awareness of
our surroundings
All Buddhists must live in
accordance with the five
Do not take a life
Do not take what is not
Do not engage is sensuous
Do not use false speech
Do not drink intoxicants
Introduction & Basics cont.
Buddhism stems from the
belief that……
………… is state of
overcoming distractions
of fear and desires
………… comes from
detaching ourselves from
mental and physical
………… is a key element
in Buddhist morality and
personal identity
There are Three Marks of
Anatta refers to no-self,
meaning there is no
ultimate reality within
Anicca refers to
Dukkha refers to suffering
This is the natural result
of anatta and anicca
II. History
A. Background: “Founder”
SIDDHARTHA GAUTAMA (born ~560 BCE Hindu warrior caste)
Sheltered from world
Four Sights…………
Went from family wealth to extreme fasting, then realizes balance
Buddha means Awakened/Enlightened One
 It’s all about my teachings, not
Siddhartha sits under the bodhi tree contemplating life (he’s
tempted during this) but achieves enlightenment
He then heads to a Deer Park to give his first sermon (see
Declaration 1: The Middle Way) NEXT SLIDE
Does eventually return home after preaching, where he
converts family and friends
Dies at the age of 80 from food poisoning
Final words speak of impermanence and the individual’s need
to figure out salvation
Declaration 1: The Middle Way
 The
Buddha gives his first address at a deer park
 only through the Middle Way can people
achieve freedom from the cycle of rebirths
Not through asceticism or sensual indulgence
 What
is it?
Four ………… , including the ………… Path
 Listeners
of this speech become the first disciples
of the Buddha, form the ………… First Buddhist
monastic community
 Eventually
term is used to describe the entire
community of monks, nuns, and lay people
II. History cont. (Buddhism after
the Buddha)
 B.
Siddhartha left no successor
Didn’t write anything down
Legacy is ………… (Sanskirt “uphold”
 Teachings
of the Buddha
III. Core Theological Teachings
Center of all Buddhist beliefs
Ignorance of this means you will continue …………
1) Life is filled with …………
2) The cause of suffering is …………
Belief in the individual leads to cravings
(Even if you get what you want, you won’t have it forever)
3) To cease ………… , one must cease ……
Everything is suffering, stop believing the individual is real
and then you will stop suffering
4) The path to the end of suffering is the Noble
Eightfold Path
This is the Middle Way, the moral standard
IV. Core Ethical Teachings
Right ………… : See things as they are
Right ………… : Replacing wrong thoughts with right ones
Right ………… : Speak truthfully and kindly about others
Right ………… : Do not cheat, steal, murder, or engage in
sexual misconduct
Right ………… : Do not earn a living through actions that
would harm other things
Understand causes of suffering, end of suffering, and the way you
endure suffering
IE: Anything involving weapons, manufacturing/selling
alcohol/drugs, have anything to do w/the slaughter of animals
Right ………… : Get rid of bad/delusional thoughts and
cultivate good ones
Right ………… : Be aware of everything at all times
Right ………… : Form of meditation in which you concentrate
on one object to give it your full attention
V. Religious Practices
A. Calendar, Feasts, Festivals (Impt Dates)
February 15th
Nirvana Day – Date on which the Buddha’s passing to
Nirvana is observed
April 8th
Buddha Day – Celebration of his birth
December 8th
B. Public/Communal Worship
Day Siddhartha took his place under the Bodhi Tree and
remained until Enlightenment
Prayer: Meditations
C. Individual Spirituality
Goal: Achieve Nirvana (eternal bliss)
Follow Buddha’s teachings
VI. Sacred Places/Spaces
 Temples:
Sacred esp. for Theraveda
Lay people come for education, meditation
 Stupas:
Places of pilgrimage, originally
housed the relics of the historical Buddha
Now they also house relics of important
Buddhist figures and other religious objects
 (See
video for Buddhist wonders/holy sites)
VII. Different Divisions
A. Theraveda Buddhism
Oldest sect of Buddhism
Focuses on the ………… , rather than the
Buddha himself
Noble Eightfold Path (emphasize ………… )
B. Mahayana Buddhism
Focuses on the ………… , celebrating him as a
divine savior
Salvation comes through the infinite grace of
the compassionate Buddha
for an emphasis on lay participation
C. Vajrayana (Tibetan) Buddhism
Harnesses the energy of desire and turns it
against itself to propel the individual toward
Emphasizes mantras, rituals and meditation as
a way to strive for Enlightenment
Hierarchy of clergy headed by …………
(Lineage is believed to continue thru
reincarnation of one Dalai Lama to the next)
D. Zen Buddhism
 Believes that the desire to become
enlightened can itself become an illusion
 Zen masters often use koans to teach their
disciples to discover themselves
Koans are intended to clear the mind and to
serve as objects of meditation
Not support to have a direct answer or solution
 What is the sound of one hand clapping?
Explanations, scriptures, and dogma are
viewed with deep suspicion
Meditation is the most important  all about
engaged presence
VIII. Siddhartha + Jesus = ?
Miracles associated with
their births
“Tempted” before
beginning public life
Group of followers
Walked on water
Fed a multitude of people
Shared a message with
the way for spiritual
Attributed the foundation
of a world religion
Religions that spread far
and wide
Buddhism flourished in the
East, Christianity in the West
Siddhartha never
claimed to be divine
Jesus is human and
Jesus was a lowly
Siddhartha was born into
Siddhartha was married
Jesus’ message was
about the Kingdom of
Siddhartha’s message
was about the end of