Taylor Ferguson
Jessica Robinson
Austin Ignaczak
Marcus Blair
Carly Pellerin
Memory – the persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information
Flashbulb memory – a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
Encoding – the processing of information into the memory system
Storage – retention of encoded information over time
Retrieval – process of getting information out of memory storage
Sensory memory – immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
Short-term memory – activated memory that holds a few items briefly, before the information is stored or forgotten
Long-term memory – relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of memory system; includes knowledge, skills, and
Working memory – newer understanding of short-term memory involves conscious, active processing of incoming
auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
Automatic processing – unconscious encoding of incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of
well-learned information, such as word meanings
Effortful Processing – encoding that requires attention and conscious effort
Rehearsal – conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or encode it for storage
Spacing effect – tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through
massed study or practice
Serial position effect – our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Visual encoding – encoding of picture images
Acoustic encoding – encoding of sound, especially sound of words
Semantic encoding – encoding of meaning, including meaning of words
Imagery – mental pictures; powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding
Mnemonics – memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
Chunking- organizing items into familiar manageable units often occurs automatically
Iconic memory- a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli a photographic or picture-image memory lasting
no more than a few tenths of a second
Echoic memory- A momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words
can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds
Long-term potentiation(LTP)- An increase in synapse’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation, Believed to be
a neural basis for learning memory.
Amnesia- The loss of memory
Implicit memory- retention independent of conscious recollection (also called procedural memory.)
Explicit memory- memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare”(also called
declarative memory.)
Hippocampus- A neural center that is located in the limbic system and helps process explicit memories for storage
Recall- A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-theblank test.
Recognition- a measure of memory in which the person need only identity items previously learned, as on a
multiple choice test.
Relearning- A memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second
Priming- The activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory, Ask a friend two rapid fire
Déjà vu- That eerie scene that “I’ve experienced this before,” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously
trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Mood-congruent memory- The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad
Proactive interference- the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Retroactive interference- The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
Repression- in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxietyarousing thoughts, feelings and memories.
Source amnesia- Attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or
imagined; (also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia along with the misinformation effect, is at the heart
of false memories.
Memory is the persistence of learning over time through the
storage and retrieval of information.
Our memory is like a computer’s information processing
system. To remember any event we must get information from
our brains (ENCODING) retain that information (STORAGE) and
get it back out later (RETREIVAL).
Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin came up with the 3
stages of memory. At first a person takes in information they
want to remember as Sensory memory, then it is put in the
short-term memory, and later is encoded into long-term
There are two ways we absorb information to our
memory or encode.
 Automatic Processing: Space, Time and frequency.
 Effortful processing: rehearsal and conscious
repetition (Ebbinghau’s retention curve)
 Three types of encoding:
Semantic (type). Easiest
 Acoustic (rhymes with). Moderate
 Visual (written n capital?). Hardest
Ionic (visual) and Echoic (auditory) memory
 At any given time, we can focus on and process
only about seven items of information (either new
or retrieved information from our memory system)
without rehearsal, information disappears within
seconds from short-term memory and is forgotten.
 Our capacity for storing information permanently in
long-term memory is essentially unlimited.
 Hippocampus: neural center in limbic system that
helps process explicit memories for storage
The process of retrieving a memory is much like
the web of a spider. There are pathways to and
from the memory, much like there are to and
from the spider.
 Mnemonic devices, tastes, smells, and sights
are ways to retrieve a memory.
 Ex: ROY G BIV helps us to remember the colors
of the rainbow.
Wanting to do something and then not being
able to remember what you wanted to do based
on a change in context.
 Ex: You are doing homework and you want to
sharpen your pencil. You go downstairs and
forget why you went. You go back to your room
and immediately remember why you went
The eerie sense that you have experienced
something before.
 This is caused by recognizing characteristics of
certain things that retrieve another memory
and make you feel as if you have been there
Our memories are somewhat mood congruent.
 Being depressed sours memories and makes
us associate them with sad feelings.
 Moods also influence how we interpret other
peoples’ behavior.
Misinformation and Imagination Effects: Many people
tend to “remember” things that did not actually occur
when given subtle misinformation.
Ex: A study was done where people watched a video of
a car accident. Some people were asked how fast the
cars were going with they hit each other, and some
were asked how fast the cars were going when they
smashed into each other. The ones that were asked
how far they were going when they smashed were
likely to say the cars were going faster.
Source Amnesia: attributing to the wrong source an
event that we have experienced, heard about, read
about, or imagined.
Ex: Preschoolers interacted with “Mr. Science”, and
three months later they were read stories about things
they had done and things they had not done with him.
When asked what they did with Mr. Science, the
preschoolers said they did things that were only in the
We can not be sure a memory is real by how it
 Older people are more susceptible to
suggested false memories, making them more
vulnerable to scams.
 Ex: A repairman can overcharge by telling
someone that they agreed to pay a certain
amount when they actually did not.
Children are more suggestible, therefore they
may remember things that did not actually
 Ex: If children are asked if a thief in their
preschool stole food, they may say yes just
because the idea was put into their head.
The three sins of forgetting:
 Absent
mindedness: inattention to details produces
encoding failure.
 Transience: storage decay after time.
 Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information
The one sin of intrusion:
 Persistence:
People can implant memories with suggestion,
it is very easy to sway children.
The sins of distortion
 Misattribution:
confusing the source of information
suggestibility… the lingering effects of
 Bias: belief, closed recollection
People can implant memories with suggestion,
it is very easy to sway children.
 Memories recovered from drugs and hypnosis
are mostly fake
Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall
Make material personally meaningful or us mnemonic
Refresh memory by activating retrieval cues, minimize
Recall events while fresh, before encountering
Test knowledge, to rehearse and determine what you
don’t yet know
Spend more time rehearsing or thinking about the