“Evolution Study Guide” 1. _________________________ says that the earliest cells were prokaryotic synthesized from organic molecules and over time became more complex eukaryotic cells. Evolution 2. The embryos of vertebrates resemble one another. This suggests that they all have a ____________________ ________________________. common ancestry 3. Define Gradualism: The idea that evolution takes place at a continuous but very slow rate. 4. a. August Weismann’s research resulted in the idea that Inheritance only takes place by means of germ cells, sperm and egg. b. Jean Lamarck’s research resulted in the false idea that Physiological changes acquired over the life of an organism may be transmitted to offspring. c. Stanley Miller’s research resulted in the idea that Organic compounds can be synthesized by fairly simple chemical processes from inorganic compounds. d. Charles Darwin’s research resulted in the idea that All organisms descended from a common ancestor through natural selection. “Evolution Study Guide” 5. Variations within populations will pass to the next generation if it is due to genetic variations and result in favorable changes. 6. Geographic and reproductive isolation are most associated with speciation 7. A species is any group or groups of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring. 8. __________________ is best described as a process of change in a population through time due to variation among species. Evolution 9. Lamack’s theory of inheritance of acquired characteristics says A man that lefts weights and develops large arm muscles can pass this characteristic to his son. 10. Define Punctuated Equilibrium: The theory that species evolve during short periods of rapid change. 11. Stanley Miller’s heterotroph hypothesis says organic molecules can be synthesized naturally. “Evolution Study Guide” 12. The separation of a small group of individuals from the main population is known as geographic isolation 13. Darwin’s theory of natural selection is represented by a. Overproduction b. Competition c. Variation d. Survival of the fittest 14. When penicillin was first introduced it was very effective in destroying most bacteria. Today, certain bacterium are resistant to penicillin. Scientists are concerned that this resistance will also occur with the use of anti-bacterial soap. The best reasoning behind this resistance is Penicillin killed the susceptible bacteria, while naturally resistant varieties survived and reproduced. 15. Relative dating says In a certain area of undisturbed layers of rock, fossils in the upper layer are younger than lower layer fossils. 16. Biological evolution says most present-day species of organisms descended from earlier, different species of organisms. “Evolution Study Guide” 17. ________________ ________________ favors the survival of certain members of the species and results in a change in the proportion of individuals with highly adapted traits. Natural selection 18. Specializations between closely related but different species reduces ________________________. competition 19. Biological evolution is best supported by the study of the fossil record 20. The percentage of individuals having a certain gene changes from 20% to 60% over the span of several hundred years. This situation will most likely affect the rate of biological evolution 21. The sudden appearance of a new characteristic in offspring is most likely due to a random change in the sequences of bases in DNA.