QUICK REVIEW • 1. Who is Aristotle and what did he contribute to persuasive argument? 2. Define ethos. • 3. In what ways did the Age of Enlightenment promote argument as a way to provide solutions? • 4. What are rhetorical devices? • 5. What is the purpose of Samuel Adam’s speech? Education: Master of Arts, Harvard. Became a Politician Passionate advocate of independence from Britain The first to propose a continental congress. Represented Massachusetts at the Continental Congress In 1776, he signed the Declaration of Independence. • Title: “American Independence” • Speaker: Samuel Adams • Where: State House in Philadelphia, the meeting place of the Continental Congress. • Purpose: Urging all to vote for the Declaration of Independence • When: The day before the Declaration of Independence was signed by the Continental Congress. 1. 2. 3. 4. According to Samuel Adams, what is Britain’s sole purpose in her promise to offer “protection” to the colonies? In what ways has Britain treated the colonies as “…beasts of burdens?” What effect does the Biblical allusion have in regards to one’s perspective on Britain and the overall speech? What is one reason that Adams give for the impossibility of the colonies continuing their alliance to Great Britain? • Group 1: Locate examples of ethos. Highlight the quote to read aloud to the class. Explain in complete sentences the purpose for the ethos. • Group 2: Locate examples of logos. Highlight the quote to read aloud to the class. Explain in complete sentences the purpose for the logos. • Group 3: Locate examples of pathos. Highlight the quote to read aloud to the class. Explain in complete sentences the purpose for the pathos. • Group 4: Copy down three of Adam’s most persuasive statements in his argument for the Declaration of Independence. Explain your choices. • Ethos: First paragraph-Samuel Adams meekly downplays his own intelligence and the honor of giving such a speech. Additionally, Adams urges the colonists to forgive him of any unfair statements he may make as he is still angry with Britain which he fears may make his speech irrational at times. • Logos: “When she defended our coasts, she fought for her customers, and convoyed our ships loaded with wealth, which we had acquired for her by our industry.” Adams urges the colonists understand that Britain sought to protect the colonists as a way of protecting those who provided her with wealth. Moreover, Adams alludes to Britain’s war with the French to which the colonists helped to fight. • Pathos: “We have fled from the political Sodom; let us not look back, lest we perish and become a monument of infamy and derision to the world!” This Biblical allusion was made to remind the colonists of Britain’s greedy desires and depraved past. Format: Introduction, two body paragraphs, and a concluding statement. Must contain all three appeals. You can argue any point or cause of your choice. May use any tone. Ex. Serious, sarcastic, angry, humorous, etc. Be persuasive! You might be chosen to present! Possible Persuasive Topics (You may come up with a different one!) 1. Grades should not matter in high school. 2. A woman should not be president of the United States. 3. College education should be free for all students. 4. All students should have to pay tuition for attending high school. 5. Professional athletes and actors should be paid the same pay scale as blue-collar workers. 6. Reality TV should be banned. 7. Health insurance should be free to all. 8. Becoming an organ donor should be mandatory. 9. Recycling should become a law.