APUSH Review: The French And Indian (7 Years) War

Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
 1854 Law that allowed for popular sovereignty in the
Kansas and Nebraska Territories
 Devised by the “Little Giant” Stephen Douglas
 The expectation was that Kansas would be slave, Nebraska would be
 Overturned the Missouri Compromise
 Many in the North were upset
 Helped lead to the creation of the Republican Party
Lawrence, Kansas
0 Free-Soil city
0 Burned by pro-slavery individuals
0 Exhibited the tensions in KS over popular sovereignty
and slavery
Caning of Charles Sumner
0 Who was Charles Sumner?
0 Senator from Massachusetts
0 Abolitionist
0 Political speech, “Crime against Kansas”, criticized Douglas and
Butler, Senator from SC
0 Enter Preston Brooks:
0 Relative of Butler
0 Wanted to defend honor of the South
0 The caning:
0 Brooks attacked Sumner at his desk with a cane
0 Sumner knocked unconscious
0 Showed deep tensions in Congress between North and South
Lecompton Constitution
0 Kansas applied for statehood
0 Voters could vote for a constitution with or without
0 HOWEVER, if they voted without slavery, those slaves
that were already in Kansas could stay and be slaves
0 Sham election
0 Free-Soilers refuse to vote
0 President Buchanan supports the Constitution
0 Kansas does not become a state until early 1861, as a
free state
Impact of “Bleeding Kansas”
0 Democratic Party split along sectional lines
0 Northern Democrats:
0 Stephen Douglass
0 1860 election all but guarantees the Democrats would
not win
0 Abe Lincoln (Republican Party) wins the election
0 Civil War begins shortly after
Background: Who was Dred
0 Dred Scott, his wife, and two daughters were slaves of
a US military Doctor
0 Prior to Dr. Emerson’s death, Scott traveled with him
in different areas of the country, including:
0 Illinois (a free state)
0 Wisconsin (a free territory)
0 After Emerson’s death, Scott sued for freedom on his
and his family’s behalf
0 The Supreme Court hoped to address the issue of
slavery once and for all
The Supreme Court’s Decision
0 Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, wrote the majority
opinion and stated the following:
1. African Americans (regardless if they were free or
slave) were NOT citizens and could not sue in court
2. Slaves were considered property and could not be
taken away without “due process” (5th amendment)
3. The Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional;
Congress could not regulate slavery in territories
Impact of the Ruling
0 Tensions increase between North and South
0 Stephen Douglas, in his famous “Freeport Doctrine”
believed territories could not enforce the decision
0 Splits the Democratic Party along sectional lines
0 In order for African Americans to become citizens, a
new court case, or amendment would be needed
0 14th amendment (granted citizenship)