Introduction to Physical Science

Introduction to
Physical Science
Ms. Weigel
What is physical science?
• Physical science is the scientific study of nonliving matter
• In this unit you will:
• Learn about how scientific progress is made
• How scientists conduct investigations
• How to use a variety of tools to collect, analyze and understand
Nature of Science
• Physical science is divided into physical science, earth science
and life science.
• Primary parts of physical science are chemistry and physics.
• What are some careers that involve science?
• Doctor, chemist, biologist
• Who are scientists that you know of?
• Einstein, Mendel, Newton
• What are some different aspects you can learn in science?
• Chemistry, astronomy, plants
• What do you usually do when you have questions?
Investigation: The search for
• After you as a question its time to find the answer.
• There are several methods you can use to start your
• Look up information in books, internet or other sources.
• You can find out info by reading past experiments.
• Make sure to always use reliable sources
• You can find answers by making careful observations.
• Observations could be hourly, daily, weekly
• You will find associations form day to day
• You can answer your own questions by doing experiments.
• Create hypothesis, which is a trial explanation, to test
• Research, observation and extermination all go together to
find your answers
Applying Answers
• Although people cannot use science to answer every question,
there are some interesting answers to be found.
• Science affects you and everything around you.
Saving lives
• Using sciences people have found answers to many questions.
• How can people be protected in car accidents?
• Seat belts, strong made cars, air bags
Saving Resources
• How can we make resources last longer?
• Recycling is one answer
• Using science people have developed more efficient methods
for recycling steel, aluminum, paper, glass and even some
Protecting the environment
• How can the ozone layer be protected?
• Aerosols damage the ozone layer
• Why does the loss of this layer matter?
• UV rays, skin cancer
• By finding ways to reduce chemicals we can protect the
environments and make the world healthier
Scientists are everywhere
• Meteorologist
• Study the atmosphere
• Geochemist
• Chemistry of rocks and minerals
• Ecologist
• Behavior of living things
• Volcanologist
• Study lava and volcanos
• Science Illustrator
• Career using art and science
• What are are three methods of investigation?
• Research, observation and experimentation
• Your friend wants to know the amount of salt added to her
favorite fast food French fries. What would you recommend
that she do to find out the amount of salt?
• Scientific investigation
• Write one paragraph about a job that relates to science
Scientific Method
What are scientific methods
• Scientific methods- ways in which scientist answer questions
and solve problems.
Asking a question
• Observation- any use of the senses to gather information
• Examples:
• Noting the sky is blue, or a cotton ball is soft
• Measusrements are observations that are made with tools
• Observations made should be accurately recorded
Forming a hypothesis
• Hypothesis- is a possible explanation or answer to a questions
• Good hypothesis are testable.
• Information can be gathered and experiments can be designed
• Making predictions
• Before scientists test the hypothesis, they make predictions about
what will happen
Testing the hypothesis
• After you form a hypothesis you need to test it
• Controlled experiments
• Compares the results from a control group with the results of an
experiment group (variables)
• Control group- are factors kept the same and do not change
• Variable- factors that can change
• Data- any pieces of information gotten through expermination
Analyzing the results
• After you collect your date, you need to analyze it
• Organize data into tables or graphs to make relationships
between information easier to see
Drawing Conclusions
• At the end of the investigation you must draw a conclusion
• You may find
• Your conclusion supports your hypothesis
• Your conclusion does not support your hypothesis
• IF so you can change the procedure, gather more information or ask
new questions
Communicating Results
• Write a scientific paper
• Making a presentation
• Creating a Website
• Other scientists can then conduct their own test based on
your results
Scientific Method Lab
• M& M Activity
• Section 2 review
• Answer questions #1-6
• Challenge questions #11
Safety in science
It’s better to be safe, then sorry
• Things that are crucial to science:
• Exploring, inventing and investigating
• Don’t take chances with your own safety or anyone else's
Safety Symbols
• Books and worksheets will contain safety symbols to let you
know about concerns.
• Becoming familiar will let you know about dangers in the
Symbols of knowledge
Eye Safety
• Wear goggles when working around chemicals, acids, baes or
• Wear safety goggles anytime there is a chance that your eyes
could be harmed.
• If anything gets in your eyes, notify the teacher immediately
and flush your eyes with running water for 15 minutes
Safety Equipment
• Know the locations of:
• Fire alarms
• Fire blankets
• Eyewash fountains
Keep your work area free of all unnecessary books and papers.
Keep hair back and secure loose sleeves
Remove jewelry
No open-toed shoes in the lab
Never eat or drink in the lab
Avoid flammable hair products
Sharp/pointed Objects
• Use knives and instruments with extreme care
• Place objects on work surface for cutting
Wear safety glasses when using heat
When possible use a hot plate for heat
When heating test tubes angle away from your body
To avoid burns, wear heat resistant gloves
• Be careful with electrical cords
• Do not used equipment with damaged cords
• Make sure electrical equipment is in the off positon when
• Wear safety goggles
• If a spill gets on your skin or clothing rinse immediately for at
least 5 minutes
• Never mix chemicals unless instructed to
• Never taste, touch or smell chemicals
Animal Safety
• Always obtain permission before bringing any animal into the
• Handle animals only as directed
• Wash your hands after handling.
Plant Safety
• Do not eat plant parts used in lab
• Wash hands after handling
• Do not pick wild plants you do not know
• Examine before use
• Clean and free of chips and cracks
• Report damage
Safety Contract
· Study laboratory procedures prior to lesson/labs.
· Never perform unauthorized experiments.
· Keep your lab table organized and free of apparel, books, and other
· Know how to use the safety shower, eye wash, fire blanket and first
aid kit.(I will show you.)
· Tie back long hair especially bangs.
· Do not wear loose sleeves as they tend to get in the way.
· Wear shoes with tops. No flip flops on lab days.
· Wear lab aprons during all laboratory sessions.
· Wear safety goggles during all laboratory sessions.
· Wear gloves when using chemicals that irritate or can be absorbed
through skin.
· Never taste or "sniff" chemicals.
· Never draw materials in a pipette with your mouth.
· When heating substances in a test tube, point the mouth away from
· Never carry dangerous chemicals or hot equipment near other people.
· Keep combustibles away from open flames.
· Use caution when handling hot glassware.
· When diluting acid, always add acid slowly to water. Never add water
to acid.
· Use glycerin and twist slowly at the base when inserting glass-tubing
· Turn off burners when not in use.
· Do not bend or cut glass unless appropriately instructed by teacher.
· Keep caps on bottles. Never switch caps with one from another bottle.
· Consult teacher for proper disposal of chemicals.
· Wash hands thoroughly following experiments.
· Leave laboratory tables clean, neat and set-up for the next
class. All supplies will go back in their proper place.
· Report all accidents and spills immediately.
· Do not touch broken glass. It will be cleaned by the teacher.
· Wash all acids and bases from your skin immediately with
plenty of running water.
· If chemicals get in your eyes, wash them for at least 15
minutes with in eyewash station. Only use the eye wash
station and shower in an emergency with teacher’s
Safety Rap
• Have lab safety contract signed
• Lab safety- “what is wrong” worksheet