The culture is related to the comprehensive
examination of the factors like the language,
religion, knowledge, laws, art, music, work
patterns, social customs, festivals and the food
etc. of the society, it also determines
 It primarily operates in a certain boundaries of
the individual boundaries of the society as per
the functioning of various institutions like the
family, mass media
It is both a mirror of values and possessions of
its members and that it is not static and evolve
a change over the time e.g. advertizing
agencies, fashion design houses, music
companies and cinema are all producer of
The main characteristics of culture are that
 Culture is invented: People invent culture
themselves and shall have an ideological
component (values right and wrong);
Technological (skills, arts and craft available to
them in the environment)
Culture is learnt: this means for e.g. belief in
god, belief in god, domination by a husband,
being polite to the ladies accepting the families
and the joint families is called for as that it is
Culture is shared: it is a combination of groups
and can be called for living for a society or a
common thing which is like to share the norms,
experiences e.g. the American Pop Culture full
of the jeans, music , burgers and cinema
Culture satisfies need: this Is thought like the
advertizing and is called to change the
psychological, social and custom needs
Cultures are not similar/static: there are
differences in the consumers, societies,
government, religion, states, dancing, music
and dynamic with more receptive to changes
and growth e.g. that the role of the women in
India traditionally is of household
Cultural values are enduring belief that a
particular behavior shall serve as the standard
across a given situation over the time the
values are
Terminal (desired end state e.g. comft. Life)
Instrumental values (correspondingly Life)
> Global values like the achievement, security,
self direction, conformity like the obedient,
politeness, self controlled etc., enjoyment
>Other oriented values are the following
individual/collective e.g. the reactions to
advertizing, luxury goods, fast food joints,
preferred sources of information
> Youth/ age in culture: this means that such
factors are more prominent in the American
cultures and the India, china and Korea prefers
the age.
Extended / limited family: families in India,
china and korea and the eastern countries give
an importance to the extended family hence
while advertizing to teen agers we need to look
for that
Masculine/ feminine: we have attributed
different values to men vs women in the world
where as in the middle eastern countries they
do not portray women at all
Competitive/ cooperative: the countries like
the spain, germany, japan put a ban on the
comparitive advertizing but is acceptable in
India e.g. coke/ pepsi commercial
Diversity/ uniformity: this includes the
religion, political beliefs and other important
attitudes and behavior
Performance/ status (brand image/ valve/
Tradition/ change (e.g. England is called very
traditional and ¾ population is generally a
brand loyal)
Risk taking/ security (new product acceptance)
Problematic/ fatalistic
nature (nature, harmony with nature or the
Shalom Schwartz (1992, 1994) used his 'Schwartz Value Inventory'
(SVI) with a wide survey of over 60,000 people to identify
common values that acted as 'guiding principles for one's life'.
He identified ten 'value types' that gather multiple values into a single
This takes value from social status and prestige. The ability to
control others is important and power will be actively sought
through dominance of others and control over resources social
authority wealth
Value here comes from setting goals and then achieving them. The
more challenge, the greater the sense of achievement. When others
have achieved the same thing, status is reduced and greater goals
are sought i.e. ambitious, capable, successful
Hedonists simply enjoy themselves. They seek pleasure above all
things and may, according to the view of others, e.g. seek
pleasure, enjoying life.
The need for stimulation is close to hedonism, though the goal is slightly
different. Pleasure here comes more specifically from excitement and
thrills and a person with this driver is more likely to be found doing
extreme sports than propping up a bar daring, varied life , exciting life.
Those who seek self-direction enjoy being independent and outside the
control of others. The prefer freedom and may have a particular creative
or artistic bent, which they seek to indulge whenever possible creativity,
curious freedom
The universalist seeks social justice and tolerance for all. They promote
peace and equality and find war anathema except perhaps in pursuit of
lasting peace social justice, equality, protecting environment, helpful
honest, forgiving
Those who tend towards benevolence are very giving, seeking to help
others and provide general welfare. They are the 'earth mothers' who
nurture all helpful , honest, forgiving
The traditionalist respects that which has gone before, doing things
simply because they are customary. They are conservatives in the original
sense, seeking to preserve the world order as is. Any change makes them
uncomfortable humble, devout
The person who values conformity seeks obedience to clear rules and
structures. They gain a sense of control through doing what they are told
and conforming to agreed laws and statutes. Politeness, humble ,
honoring parents
Those who seek security seek health and safety to a greater degree than
other people (perhaps because of childhood woes). Though they may
worry about the potential of military force, they welcome the comfort that
their existence brings.
NT(Motivation HEDONISM
Time : Time perspective has a direct influence on the personal
selling and the advertizing themes likewise e.g. as in the case of
convenience foods for the non time saving cutures e.g. the japan,
middle east do not like the insistence of coming on time in
Space: the personal space is also important and is the minimum
space between people without making them feel uncomfortable
and pushy e.g. north americans consider the south american
pushy and aggressive and them the south americans feel that the
north americans are aloof , cold and sometimes snobbish
Symbols: four is a symbol of death in the japan similarly the
malasians consider the green color with the illness and jungalism.
Friendship: japanese negotiate a relationship where the americans
negotiate a contract as well in india a personal relationship is
considered important for the success in the long run.
Agreements : for the countries like the china, arbs it is the verbal
aggrement, for americans it is the written contract
Things: in china the gifts should be given in
private but in the arbs it should be given in
front of everyone, in India gifts shall be given
on the occasion like Diwali
Etiquettes: in india its considered alright to eat
with the fingers but the western cultures use
the fork similarly nodding head shall be
considered as to saying yes in some cultures
and no in the other cultures
The norms and values of the consumers in the
foreign markets that influence the strategies of
the multinational organizations e.g. “thing
globally act locally” levi strauss similarly the
procter & gamble, pepsi, coca cola, IBM,
Gillette, J&J, Kelloggs, colgate palmolive,
nestle, canon, epson, honda, Suzuki and many
others earn a large revenue abroad even the
company Mc Donald’s has adopted a
uniformity across the Global Markets.
Subcultures: these are the sub or under the
main parts of the society which belongs to a
particular culture are different in some or the
other way like size e.g. in India subcultures
cultures with some other languages which
belong to a particular culture there within the
constraints like the mother tongue and the local
languages are many in the counterparts of
india the other factors that are held as an
important constraints are the generation,
gender factor, regional and religion factors.