Assignment 1 (Literature Review)
Gan Kin Shyang P80447
1) Explain the focus of your literature review.
The concentrating interest in my literature review are as follows:
Revolution of the print media and digital media.
Impact between new media and newspaper in Malaysia.
The challenge and development of the Chinese newspaper in Malaysia.
Relations between role of ethnic unity and Chinese newspaper in Malaysia.
2) What kind of literature review have you done so far?
Centuries before the newspaper made its appearance, handwritten newsletters spread the news
of the day. ‘ACTA’ is the first newspapers also the modern newspaper in a European invention
posted by the Roman from the year 59 B.C. to at least A.D. 222. China had early governmentproduced news sheets, called ‘ti-pao’ (邸报), which were first circulated among officials
during the Han dynasty (202 B.C. to A.D. 221) and printed at some point during the Tang
dynasty (618 to 906).
Modern newspapers were introduced to China in 19th century and primarily by missionaries
also other foreigners. The first oversea Chinese media or Chinese newspaper was published
from 1815 to 1821, marked the beginning of Chinese journalism from China to oversea hence
till nowadays already 200 years. It was a monthly publication called “Chinese Monthly
Magazine” founded by Western missionary Robert Morrison sent by the London Missionary
Society and was printed in Malacca using traditional woodblock printing.
When it come to 20th century was the century of the digital revolution, many scientific and
technology advances inventory in this century such as radio and television, this is the media
revolution after print media - newspaper. The inventory of the URL (Uniform Resource
Locator) and World Wide Web (“WWW” or simply the “Web”) connected through the internet,
the innovative of the technology development, such as “APP” (Application), social media
platform, live chat and share in internet bring another much impact to print media.
Print media such as newspapers been linked to a sunset industry and will be replace by new
media, and follow by a published by Larry Kilman, Secretary General, WAN-IFRA (World
Association of Newspapers and News Publishers) in year 2014, pint circulation increased +2
per cent globally in 2013 from a year earlier but declined by -2 per cent over five years. Around
2.5 billion people around the world read newspapers in print and 800 million on digital
platforms. (
In Malaysia, the sluggish economic conditions and escalating cost of living may have
marginally contributed towards a decline of 6% (Newspapers – Print Edition) between January
1, 2015 to June 30, 2015 against the July 1 2014 to December 31, 2014 period, the Audit Bureau
of Circulations Malaysia (ABC) revealed. Digital Replica Circulation continued to grow during
the period, January 1, 2015 to June 30, 2015. It grew by 30% compared to the July 1, 2014 to
December 31, 2014 period. (
However, based on Nielsen’s latest survey from July 2014 to June 2015, daily readership of
printed newspapers in Peninsular Malaysia on the whole increased to 60% in terms of reach,
up from 57% previously; while weekly readership remained stable at 78% reach. Weekly
digital readership (including websites and e-papers) grew to a 13% reach from 10% previously.
It was also reported that Malaysia’s newspaper readership reach stood at 57% of the population
from 2010 to 2014, compared with Hong Kong (70%), Singapore (62%) and Thailand (19%).
In the development of the printing newspaper has an important relationship between the
overseas immigrants, newspapers play an important role in promoting ethnic unity, peaceful
coexistence between multiracial and educate the immigrants into the local culture.
3) What are the source for your literature reviews?
The foundation data is from:
WAN-IFRA (World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers)
Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC) Malaysia
The Nielsen Company (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd
Media Chinese International Limited (MCIL) Group
Journal form library – UKM
Sin Chew Media Corporation Berhad
4) What is the state of the literature review in relation with your own research?
Malaysia is a multiracial country, culture and language, Chinese newspaper has been playing
an important role in promoting national unity and harmony, the revolution of new media are
lack of the reality and responsibility, in order the to raise up the awareness of the reader and
create a harmony country, this research is to understand how Chinese newspaper play his role
and also share the understanding among others racial.
The propose research title:
The role of Chinese newspapers in ethnic relations: challenges and expectations
“Peranan surat khabar Cina dalam hubungan etnik: cabaran dan harapan”