Building a program based on research, field experience and evidence based behavior change models/theories Susan Bergson Michael Robinson Jack Carrel Based on Presentation by: B.D. Hayes, DSW, MPH, MSWMorehouse School of Medicine Learning Objectives • To provide a model for developing your proposal ideas based on research, field experience and evidence based behavior change models/theories • To review winning grant writing tips • To identify strategies for mutually beneficial partnering/collaborations • To increase funding for a variety of projects A successful grant proposal is one that is well-prepared, thoughtfully planned and concisely packaged …………….………….CFDA Research and Write first Fund Second The Three Essential Laws of Successful Proposal Development and Grant Writing • Do your homework • Follow instructions • Use Common Sense General Tips and Comments • Take sufficient time to prepare a good abstract, LOI, or a concept paper • Avoid the use of jargon and acronyms • Always include a budget and budget justification • Be careful when/where you cut and paste: assure uniformity of font size and type • ALWAYS use a reader and get editorial assistance Traits of a Successful Grant Getter • Research skills • Salesmanship skills • Communication skills • Ingenuity skills • Administrative skills • Human relations • Persistence, dedication, patience • Ability to work hard • Political awareness and action • Integrity Step 1: Research • Before writing up a proposal, look at the research or the evidence base – PubMed – Google Scholar • Make sure to reference research (cite articles) in your background or needs statement • Use what already exists: – Statewide Coordinated Statement of Need and Comprehensive Plan – HIV/AIDS Quarterly and Annual Reports – New report from the Southern AIDS Coalition Step 2: Field Experience • What makes you think that it will work in the context in which you work and the population you will focus on? • Conduct focus groups and/or key informant interviews to understand why and how intervention will work • If changes to intervention need to be made to fit your population of interest, what are they? • Check out article- Cultural adaptation in translational research: field experiences. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15933334 Step 3: Understanding Behavior Change Theory Step 3: Understanding Behavior Change Theory Global Causes of Death Injuries Communicable diseases, maternal and perinatal conditions, and nutritional deficiencies 9% Noncommunicable diseases 31% 60% Source: WHO, World Health Report 2000—Health Systems: Improving Performance (Geneva: WHO, 2000). Behavior change reduces risky behaviors Health Promotion Means Changing Behavior at Multiple Levels A B C D E Individual: knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, personality Interpersonal: family, friends, peers Community: social networks, standards, norms Institutional: rules, policies, informal structures Public Policy: local policies related to healthy practices Source: Adapted from National Cancer Institute, Theory at a Glance: A Guide for Health Promotion (2003), available online at http://cancer.gov. Stages of Change Model • Changing one’s behavior is a process, not an event • Individuals at different levels of change • Gear interventions to level of change Source: James O. Prochaska et al., “In Search of How People Change: Application to Addictive Behaviors,” American Psychologist 47, no. 9 (1992): 1102-14. Stages of Change Model (cont.) Precontemplation Maintenance Action Contemplation Decision Example Combating HIV/AIDS in Uganda • Political support, multisectoral response • Decentralized behavior change campaigns • Focus on women and youth, stigma and discrimination • Mobilization of religious leaders • Confidential voluntary counseling and testing • Social marketing of condoms • Control and prevention of STIs Source: Edward C. Green, Rethinking AIDS Prevention: Learning from Successes in Developing Countries (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2003). SUCCESSFUL APPLICATIONS • Direct, concise, compelling, convincing, capable and resourceful • Addresses a significant/important problem • Explicit goals, measurable objectives • Comprehensive but succinct background review • Methodology fits problem • Appropriate funding mechanism Unsuccessful Applications • Failure to follow directions • Lack of new or original ideas • Diffuse, superficial, or unfocused research • Lacks clearly stated hypothesis and rationale • Lack of an overall research goal; uncertainty about future directions • Lack of knowledge about relevant literature • Questionable reasoning in research design • Lack of demonstrated experience in selected methodology (lacks detail) • Format issues • Over-ambitious Developing Your Idea(s) • Needs Assessment – Evidence of problem – Local, county, state, national • Capability Assessment – Organizational – People – Past and present history – Resources (funds, expertise, etc.) Grant Writing Process • • • • • • • Begins with a good idea Review the components of a successful grant Apply the model Evaluate and discuss the plan Literature review Analysis of current research/activity in the field Develop team The Task You Face • Clearly Identify the Need – Make sure the needs are those of the target population • Define the Solution – Use a Problem/Needs approach • Carefully Design the Project – How a problem is defined often determines an approach to develop a solution Basic Components • The Proposal Summary • Introduction • Problem Statement (or Needs Assessment) • Project Objectives • Project Methods or Design • Project Evaluation • Project Budget • Future Funding General Tips and Comments • Take sufficient time to prepare a good abstract, LOI, or a concept paper • Avoid the use of jargon and acronyms • Always include s budget and budget justification • Be careful when/where you cut and paste: assure uniformity of font size and type • ALWAYS use a reader and get editorial assistance Questions? • Read the directions! • As you are writing the LOI, please feel free to send Michael Robinson questions: email@example.com • Get two other people who are not involved with the proposal development to read your document • The Louisiana Community AIDS Partnership is available to help with technical assistance on all of your grant applications if you need us.