Chapter Five: Social Structure Example from World History: Section One: Social Structure and Status The underlying pattern of social relationships in a group is called social structure. Status is one very important element of social structure. Ascribed statuses are assigned at birth; achieved statuses are earned or chosen. I. Social Structure is Everywhere Czarist Russia A. Culture guides us in our thinking, feeling, and behaving – without culture there is not blueprint for social living B. Social structure 1. Knowledge of how people normally relate to one another 2. The underlying pattern of relationships in groups Social Structure in High Schools Here at NHS: Principal (1) Administrators (4) Principal Administrators Teachers (~100) Students (~1600) Teachers Students Note: CCPS and NHS are actually more complicated than this graphic but for the sake of today’s discussion this simplified version will do. Excluded from the graphic are supervisors, the Board of Education, secretaries, building services workers, instructional aids, etc. II. Everyone Has Status A. We must learn from others B. Status: a position a person occupies within a social structure Statuses Identified in Photo: •Female •Mother •Wife •White •Employee (according to traditional US status symbols) C. Ascribed status 1. Definition: a position that is neither earned nor chosen but assigned 2. Examples: male, female, Hindu Caste System labels (see image), race, naturalborn citizenship, etc. D. Achieved status 1. Definition: a position that is earned or chosen 2. Examples: student, teacher, athlete, CEO, mother, husband, etc. E. Status set 1. Definition: all of the statuses that a person occupies at any particular time 2. Example: student, brother, soccer player, store clerk, son, piano player Barrack Obama: President of the United States, male, husband, father, Nobel Peace Prize Winner, athlete F. Master Status 1. Definition: A position that strongly affects most other aspects of a person’s life 2. May be achieved or ascribed 3. In industrial societies occupations are often master statuses 4. Can influence where you live, how well you live, and how long you live Luke Skywalker: Jedi Knight Section Two: Social Structure and Roles People interact according to prescribed roles. These roles carry certain rights and obligations. Sometimes conflict or strain occurs when an individual has too many roles to play. I. Rights and Obligations A. Role: an expected behavior associated with a particular status – Any status can have numerous roles B. Based on rights and obligations 1. Right: a behavior that individuals can expect from others 2. Obligation: a behavior that individuals are expected to perform toward others 3. Example: doctor – patient a. Doctor is obligated to diagnose a patient’s illness b. Patient has the right to expect the doctor to diagnose to the best of his/her ability II. Role Performance and Social Interaction A. Role Performance 1. Definition: the actual behavior of an individual in a role 2. Can occur alone but most evident in social interaction B. Social Interaction: the process of influencing each other as people relate III. Role Conflict and Role Strain A. Role Conflict 1. Definition: condition in which the performance of a role in one status interferes with the performance of a role in another status 2. Example: : teenage can be a student and an athlete – it can be difficult to find the time to study and practice/play B. Role Strain 1. Definition: condition in which the roles of a single status are inconsistent or conflicting 2. Example: students are expected to do homework in all of their classes – it can be difficult to find the time to study and complete homework for all seven classes in one night C. How do we manage role conflict and strain? 1. Set priorities 2. Segregate roles – an organized-crime member may separate his criminal activities from his being a loving father Theoretical Perspective S. S. Concept Functionalism – everyone in a culture has a function or role to play in order to provide stability Role Conflict Theory – culture is based on competition and is therefore constantly changing Symbolic Interactionism – interaction between individuals in a society occurs through mutually understood symbols Ascribed Master Status Example Social integration is promoted by culturally defined rights and obligations honored by group members Ascribed master status such as gender and race empower some to subjugate others Social Roles are carried out by Interaction individuals on the basis of the symbols and meanings they share Section Three: Preindustrial Societies The way a society provides for basic needs greatly affects its culture and social structure. Preindustrial, industrial, and postindustrial societies meet basic needs in different ways. Preindustrial societies include hunting and gathering, horticultural, pastoral, and agricultural societies. I. Types of Society A. Society definition: people living within defined territorial boundaries who a share a common culture B. Society 1. Meet their members’ needs in different ways 2. Independent of outsiders 3. Contains smaller structures C. Members in each type of society know what is expected of them and what they can expect of others – share patterned and predictable social relationships that are passed from generation to generation II. Hunting and Gathering Societies A. Definition: a society that survives by hunting and gathering edible plants B. Common Characteristics 1. Nomadic 2. Members have few material goods 3. Members related by blood or marriage 4. Generosity, sharing of goods, and hospitality are valued 5. No sense of private ownership 6. No social classes 7. Division of labor is limited by sex and age III. Horticultural Societies A. Definition: a society that survives primarily through the growing of plants B. Common Characteristics 1. Permanent settlements 2. Primary emphasis is to provide for the household 3. Family is highly valued IV. Pastoral Societies A. Definition: a society in which food is obtained primarily by raising and taking care of animals B. Common Characteristics 1. Herd animals such as cattle, camels, goats, and sheep, which provide meat and milk 2. Women remain at home and men take the herd to different pastures 3. Very male dominated 4. More likely to create a surplus food supply 5. Development of social inequality V. Agricultural Societies A. Definition: a society that uses plows and draft animals in growing food B. Common Characteristics 1. Increased productivity – more food per unit of land 2. Large settlements 3. More non-economic activities such as formal education 4. Political, economic, and religious institution emerge 5. Government (not family) is the guiding force 6. Distinct social classes – wealth and power based on land ownership 7. Monetary systems (use of common currencies instead of goods as payments) Section Four: Industrial and Postindustrial Societies The Industrial Revolution created a new type of society, called industrial society. Characteristics that distinguish this society from all earlier one include the growth of large cities and a wide spread dependence on machines and technology. Postindustrial society has a predominately white-collar labor force that is concentrated in service industries. Social instability has been linked to the transition from and industrial to postindustrial society. I. Basic Features of Industrial Societies A. Industrial society: a society that depends on science and technology to produce its basic goods and services B. Basic structural changes from agricultural to industrial 1. Away from simple machines and tradition 2. Toward the application of science to create more technology 3. Mechanization: the process of replacing animal and human power with machine power C. Changes in the family 1. Economic activities are no longer in the home 2. Education of the young through formal schooling 3. Blood relationships decline 4. Women become less subordinate to their husbands 5. Personal choice and love replace arranged marriages II. A Conversation with Two Sociologists A. Ferdinand Tonnies 1. Gemeinschaft: preindustrial society based on tradition, kinship, and close social ties 2. Gesellschaft: industrial society characterized by weak family ties, competition, and impersonal social relationships B. Emile Durkheim 1. Social solidarity: the degree to which a society is unified 2. Mechanical solidarity: a type of social unity achieved by people doing the same type of work and holding similar values 3. Organic solidarity: a type of social unity in which members’ interdependence is based on specialized functions and statuses III. Major Features of Postindustrial Society A. Postindustrial Society: a society in which the economic emphasis is on providing services and information B. Sociologist Daniel Bell’s major features of postindustrial societies 1. Majority of the labor force are employed in services rather than agriculture or manufacturing 2. White-collar employment replaces much bluecollar work 3. Technical knowledge is the key organizing feature 4. Technological change is planned and assessed 5. Reliance on computer modeling in all areas IV. Social Instability in Postindustrial Society A. Theory from historian Francis Fukuyama in 1990 B. Three Parts 1. Transition to a service economy has increased social instability 2. Recent decrease in social instability as new social norms are established 3. The returned of social stability has occurred because humans find it difficult to live without values and norms Stages of Pre-Industrial Societies Small groups of nomadic huntergatherers focus on foraging and hunting food. Huntergatherers begin to farm in areas where climate allows. Huntergatherers make tools from stone and bronze and build simple structures in which to live. Pastoral herders begin to move less and build permanent structures. Humans learn how to domesticate plants and animals. The invention of the plow begins the rise of agricultural societies. Population grows because there is more food. Cities begin to grow, skilled laborers emerge, and trade with other civilizations increases. Stages of Industrial and PostIndustrial Societies New occupations, such as scientists, arise, that expand knowledge of the physical world. Inventions of technology, such as the steam engine, allow for machines that replace human labor. Migration to urban areas leads to safety, waste management, and resource. Increase food production and understanding of disease increases life expectancy. Economy moves from one based on manufacturing to one based on service and technology. Increased industry leads to a greater need for natural resources. The microchip brings about changes in biomedicine and genetic engineering which expands life expectancy. Nations struggle for natural resources – whoever controls the technology has the power.