Chapter 13 Vital signs Vital Signs Vital = alive Not necessarily healthy You can be alive and very unhealthy Signs = actions that indicate someone is alive Pulse Respirations Body temperature Blood pressure Baseline vital signs 1st set of vitals signs Compare future readings to. Indicates you health has gotten Better Poorer Pulse How fast the heart beats in a specific amount of time Radial artery (wrist) Use fingers, not thumb Count the beats for 1 minute or 30 seconds and X 2 Pulse 80 bpm Average Any type of irregular heart beat resting heart rate Bradycardia Slow pulse range Arrhythmia Tachycardia Fast pulse rate 60 – 90 bpm is average resting heart rate Murmur Skipping a beat Extra beat Respirations How many breaths are taken in a specific amount of time. 1 inhalation + 1 exhalation = 1 respiration 15 rpm average rate 12 -18 average range Tachypnea Faster than normal resting respiration rate > 20 rpm Bradypnea Slower than normal resting respiration rate < 10 rpm Body Temperature The temperature of the body at rest. Orally Ear canal Forehead Rectal Not used a lot in dentistry. Whewww…. Normal average body temperature. 98.6 ° Fahrenheit 37° Celsius Normal body temperature range. 96.0 – 99.5° Fahrenheit 35.5 – 37.5° Celsius Body temperature Hypothermic Pt. has a lower than normal body temperature. Overexposure to cold. Overdose of antipyretic medication Hyperthermic Pt. has a ‘fever’ Higher than normal body temperature Antipyretic Anything that helps reduce a fever Aspirin Cold packs Blood pressure Indication of Pt.’s cardiovascular health. Low blood pressure 120 80 Range 100-140 60-90 Recorded as mm Hg w/ heart contracts / beats Top / Upper # High blood pressure Hypotension Average Systolic pressure Pressure Hypertension Diastolic Pressure w/ heart is relaxed / between beats Bottom / lower # Blood pressure Sphygmomanometer Aka blood pressure cuff used to measure blood pressure Compresses brachial artery Used w/ a stethoscope to listen for heart sounds. Blood pressure Done after 5 min of pt. being relaxed Cuff place high on arm Left arm preferred Closer to heart Stethoscope is place over brachial artery Antecubital space Fold in arm above elbow Blood pressure Cuff is inflated Cuff is slowly deflated 1st heart beat sound Systolic # Last heart beat sound 20 mm Hg above average diastolic # Release all air from cuff + remove from arm. Record readings Putting them all together 1. 2. 3. Place thermometer in mouth.(1 min.) Take pulse first 30 sec. Take respirations second 30 sec. 1. 4. 5. 6. Pretend to continue to take pulse Take blood pressure Record all vital signs in pt. chart All should be completed within 2 – 3 min. Conclusion Your ability to take accurate vital signs is very important. Dr’s make Tx and Rx decisions based on vital signs. You should be able to explain their importance to your patients and how they relate to their over all health. Any questions??????