Genetics Study Guide

“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
1. Explain the function of the ribosome.
It binds together amino acids to make proteins
directed by DNA in the nucleus.
2. Explain sexual reproduction.
Fusion of the nuclei in sex cells.
3. How many cells and chromosomes are produced
during meiosis in humans?
Four cells with 23 chromosomes.
4. If both parents are homozygous dominant for a
condition, how many of the four children will have the
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
5. Explain genetic engineering.
A section of DNA molecule is put into the DNA
of another organism.
6. What does a gene pool consist of?
All the heritable genes for traits in a
7. If sperm cells have 14 chromosomes, how
many chromosomes in the fertilized egg?
Twenty eight
8. Explain cancer.
Uncontrolled cell division.
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
9. The ability of cells to pass on their characteristics to
new cells is most directly related to
The ability of chromosomes to replicate.
10. The pedigree below traces the inheritance of the
allele that causes albinism a recessive trait. Label the
chart with the genotypes of each individual.
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
11. Use the above Punnet square to show the chances
between having a male or female offspring.
So the chance of having a
boy is always 50%.
12. The rungs of the following DNA ladder are made
of the base sequence ______________ which always
binds to ________________ and ______________
which always binds to ________________.
Adenine-thymine, cytosine-guanine
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
13. Explain cloning in plants.
Remove a cell from a leaf initiate mitosis in a lab
and differentiation will grow a new plant.
14. In cats, gene E produces yellow fur and gene B
produces black fur. A cat that inherits both these
genes has yellow and black fur. The alleles for fur
color are located on the X-chromosome. Draw a
Punnet square to show how a male would get
yellow fur.
Illustrate on promethean board.
15. Calico color in cats is most likely a result of
Codominant sex-linked genes.
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
16. Plants can reproduce asexually by the following
Runner, new tuber, new bulb, and rhizome
17. Some weed killers, insecticides, and food additives
alter the DNA of certain cells. Because of this effect,
these substances are known as
18. To have a male offspring means a sperm cell must
have a _____ chromosome because you always get an
X chromosome from mom.
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
19. All the information necessary for growth, development,
and eventual reproduction od successfully producing
organisms is present in the
Fertilized egg
20. In mice gray fur (G) is always dominant over creamcolored fur (g). Create a Punnet square to show the cross
between a homozygous gray mouse and a cream-colored
Illustrate on promethean board.
21. What percentage of the mice in the F1 generation would
have gray fur?
22. DNA is able to control cellular activities most directly by
regulating the process of
Protein synthesis
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
23. The allele for color-blindness is carried on the
______ chromosome.
24. A change in the genetic sequence of an organism
could be caused by
Exposure to radiation
25. The great variety of modern dogs could be best
explained due to
Selective breeding of dogs over many years
26. Relatives often have similar characteristics
because they have similar
Have similar types of proteins
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
27. Which process leads to the greatest variety of
genetic combinations?
Meiosis and fertilization
28. The information to make proteins in the ribosome
comes from the
29. Deletions, insertions, and substitutions are
mutations that can alter genes in a skin cell that will
most likely be passed to
Every cell that develops from that skin cell.
“Genetics Study Guide” INB p.138
30. Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified
by interactions with the
31. Many people consider cloning humans to be
32. Asexual reproduction causes a lack of
__________________ which can destroy a population.