Task Nr.1 Read the text and a) look up the unknown words, b) be ready to answer
the questions.
The 206 bones in the skeleton form the framework of the body. The 80 bones of the
head, face, neck and trunk are called the axial skeleton. The appendicular skeleton,
comprising the limbs or appendages, is made up of 32 bones in each adult upper limb
and 31 in each lower limb. The largest bone in the body is the femur; the smallest are
the ossicles in the middle ear.
Bones have several important functions. They are the support system of the body for
soft tissues and enchorage points for muscles. The skull protects the brain, and the
lungs and heart are enclosed by the bones of the vertebral column (spine), ribs and
sternum (breastbone). There are 12 pairs of ribs. Inside bones, red and white blood cells
and platelets are manufactured and essential elements such as calcium and phosphate
are stored.
There are three kinds of bone – long (e.g., thigh and arm); flat (the shoulders, skull, ribs
and pelvis) and irregular (the spinal column, ankle and wrist, although the last are
sometimes called short bones). Bones are covered by a tough sheath, the periosteum,
which contains many small nerve endings.
A joint is formed where two bones meet. There are three types of joints. Fibrous joints
are fixed and immovable such as the bones of the skull. Cartilaginous joints are slightly
movable joints. Synovial joints are freely movable. There are seven varieties of
synovial joints.
The hand and arm make up the upper limb, capable of many functions and fine
movements because of its specialized joints and muscles. The shoulder joint is the most
mobile in the body. There are two bones in the forearm- the radius and ulna- which,
with their muscles, can rotate the hand from palm down to palm up. The bones of the
palm of the hand are called metacarpals. Each finger consists of three bones - a near
(proximal) phalanx, middle and that farthest away (distal).
The leg and foot form the lower limb, which supports and carries the weight of the
whole body while standing, walking, leaping and running. The femur is the longest –
often up to one third of the body length – and the strongest in the body. The hip joint is
the deepest ball- and-socket joint and very stable. The knee joint is the biggest and
most complicated in the body. Achilles tendon is the most important and powerful in
the body. If this tendon ruptures, walking becomes impossible. The ankle joint is at the
junction of the tibia and fibula with the tarsal bones. The foot has seven tarsal and five
metatarsal bones.
The muscles that cover the skeleton are called voluntary muscles. They also cause
movements of overlying tissues, as in the face, where they create the expression of
feelings, as shown by smiles and frowns. Skeletal muscle constitutes about 42 percent
of a male body and 36 percent of a female body.
There are three types of muscles. Striated muscle reveals patterns when viewed under a
microscope. All voluntary muscles are striated. Smooth, or unstriated, muscle is found
in the walls of blood vessels, the alimentary tract and the ducts of glands. Heart muscle
is a specialized type of striated muscle, contracting automatically at a rate regulated by
its nerve supply.
The spine stretches from the base of the skull to the coccux and is composed of bones
called vertebrae. Disks, separate the body of each vertebra with ligaments in front and
behind to keep the spinal column together. The column is flexible and maintains the
upright posture of the body. The spinal cord extends from the base of the skull to the
first lumbar vertebra.
The nose, mouth and throat are concerned with breathing, smelling, speaking and
eating. The taste of food is derived from the senses of smell and taste. Without smell,
only sweet, sour, salt and bitter flavors can be appreciated by the taste buds, located on
the surface of the muscular tongue. The tongue is used in eating, speaking and
swallowing. Air, drawn through the nose into a cavity is humidified and warmed.
The organ of hearing and balance, the ear, is divided into outer, middle and inner parts.
The visible, outer ear (pinna) funnels sound waves down the auditory canal onto the
tympanic membrane stretched across the tube like a drum, separating it from the middle
The two eyes transmit color images of the outside world to the brain. There six muscles
in the orbit that control eye movements and weakness in one or more muscles can
cause an eye to deviate – called a strabismus.
1. Look through the words and be sure whether you remember the main parts of
the human body.
A. The Body
1. face
2. mouth
3. chin
4. neck
5. shoulder
6. arm
7. upper arm
8. elbow
9. forearm
10. armpit
D. The Eye
1. eyebrow
2. eyelid
3. eyelashes
11. back
13. waist
14. abdomen
15. buttocks
16. hip
17. leg
18. thigh
19. knee
20. calf
4. iris
5. pupil
B. The Hand
1. wrist
2. knuckle
3. fingernail
4. thumb
5. (index) finger
6. middle finger
7. ring finger
8. little finger
9. palm
E. he Foot
1. ankle
2. heel
3. instep
2. Answer the questions
a. How many chief parts of the body do you know?
C. The Head
1. hair
2. forehead
3. ear
4. cheek
5. nostril
6. jaw
7. tongue
8. tooth
9. lip
10. mustache
4. ball
5. big toe
6. little toe
What is the skeleton composed of?
What does the skull contain?
What are the main parts of the face?
What are the organs of special sense?
What can you do with your eyes? (nose, ears)
Where are the organs of taste?
What can you tell us about the mouth?
i. What do you do with your mouth?
3. Use the proper words
The skeleton is composed of
bones; b) joints; c) ligaments; d) tissues
The skull encloses
muscles; b) brain; c) cartilage
The teeth are set in:
gums; b) the jaw – bones; c) the tongue; d) the mouth
Use the lips for:
speaking; b) hearing; c) tasting; d) smelling
The organs of special sense are:
mouth; b) teeth; c) eyes; d) nose
4. Choose the correct answer
1. One of the organs of the digestive system is:
a) lungs
b) liver
c) mouth
2. Organ which is included in the respiratory system is:
a) lungs
b) liver
c) stomach
3. An oculist is a doctor who treats:
a) eye diseases b) respiratory diseases c) heart diseases
4. A patient is a person who:
a) receives treatment from the doctor b) treats people c) studies medicine
5. Farsighted is a person :
a) who can’t see far b) who can’t see near c) whose vision is good
6. Blood pressure is:
a) beat of the heart
7. Toes are:
b) pressure of the blood to arterial walls
a) the end parts of the hand
b) the end parts of the feet
a) the part of the body between the arm and the hand b) the narrow part in the
middle of the body
8. The part between the leg and the foot is:
a) the wrist
b) the ankle
c) the knee
9. “To digest” means:
a) to take air into your lungs b) to chew the food c) to change food that you have
just eaten into
10.Waist is:
substances that your body can use
Task 5
Choose the missing word from below:
Your heart is really 1____________________. It is located a little to the left of the middle
of your 2____________ and it’s about the size of your fist. There are lots of muscles all
over your body – in your arms, in your legs, in your back. But this muscle is special
because of what it does – the heart sends 3______________ around the body. The blood
provides your 4________________ with oxygen and nutrients it needs. It also carries
away the waste that your body has to get rid of.
Your 5______________is sort of like a pump or two pumps in one. The right side of your
heart receives blood from the body and pumps it to the 6____________
The left side of the heart does the exact opposite: it receives blood from the lungs and
pumps it out of the body. By the time you are grown-up, your heart will be
7_____________about 70 times a minute.
How does the heart beat? Before each beat, your hear fills with blood. Then it contracts to
squirt the blood along. Your heart does this all day and all night. Every day an
8_____________ heart pumps 7,500 litres of recycled blood by filling and contracting.
1. body 2. chest 3. beating 4. heart 5. blood 6. lungs 7. adult 8. muscle
Task 6
Answer the questions:
1. Where is your heart located?
2. Where else can you found muscles in your body besides your heart?
3. Why do we need a heart?
4. Which organ directly works with the heart?
Task 7
Work with your partner. Analyze these questions and answers to them.
1. What is your health?
2. Are you healthy?
3. What is your eyesight/vision
4. Do you wear glasses?
5. What’s your B. P. ?
6. What’s your pulse?
7. What’s your blood test?
8. How can you protect your heart?
1. My health is (good, poor, normal, perfect…)
2. Yes, I am. No, I am not.
3. I am nearsighted/farsighted. My vision is
4. Yes, I do.
5. My blood pressure is 120/80
6. My pulse is……..beats per minute.
7. My blood test is………..
8. I can protect my heart by………
Task 8
Discuss in a group. What disease or disorder may occur to a person when:
1. The stomach produces too much acid.
2. There are repeated injuries to a joint.
3. You vomit several times during a day.
4. Your skin is in contact with certain plants.
5. Your blood pressure remains high.
6 .The cholesterol level in the blood gets too high.
Task 9 Read the text and look up unfamiliar words in a dictionary.
Digestion is the process by which the complex forms of food materials are broken
down into simpler form of food materials suitable for absorption.
Once the food is digested, it must be transferred to the blood stream and the process
by which this transfer occurs is called absorption. Digestion and absorption are two chief
functions of the digestive system.
The Alimentary Canal
The alimentary canal is a long muscular digestive tube extending through the body. It
is about 750cm in length. It consists of the following parts:
1) mouth
2) esophagus
3) stomach
4) small intestine
5) large intestine
6) rectum
7) anal canal
Functions of Digestive System
1) Break down the food substances into small particles.
2) Digestion of food substances.
3) Absorption of food substances.
4) Excretion of undigested food and toxic substances.
The digestive system may be divided into two groups of organs.
The alimentary canal, which is a continuous, passage way beginning at the mouth, where
the food is taken in and terminating at the anus where the solid products of digestion,
which are not absorbed, are expelled from the body.
The accessory organs – which are vitally necessary for the digestive process, do not
happen to be part of the alimentary canal.
Physiology of Digestion
Digestion takes place in three parts of the alimentary canal. They are:
1) Mouth – with the help of saliva from three pairs of salivary glands.
2) Stomach – with the help of gastric juice from the stomach wall and
3) Small intestine – with the help of pancreatic juice from the pancreas, bile juice from
the liver and the intestinal juice from the small intestine.
Most of the digestive juices contain the chemicals known as enzymes.
Saliva is a juice secreted by three pairs of salivary glands in the mouth. Salivary
secretion is a reflex process, both conditioned and unconditioned reflexes are involved. A
new born infant salivates when food is placed in its mouth. But the sight and smell of food
does not produce any reaction.
Later by associating the sight and smell of food with its taste, the child learns that the
food has certain qualities and these every qualities are afterwards capable of eliciting
salivary secretion.
The liver is one of the largest and important organ situated on the right side of
abdomen. Bile is secreted by the liver.
Functions of Liver
1) The production of bile from the pigment of broken down red blood cells.
2) The removal of toxins that have been absorbed from the intestine.
3) The storage of simple sugar in the form of glycogen which is released as needed in
the form of glucose.
4) The storage of fat soluble vitamins including A, D, E and K.
5) The manufacture of heparin, which prevents clotting of the blood in the blood
6) The formation of antibodies which acts against disease producing organisms.
7) The production of certain blood plasma proteins such as fibrinogen and albumin.
8) The removal of a waste product called urea from amino acids.
Bile juice
In the absence of bile, fats are not digested properly which results in fatty diarrhoea.
Thus bile is essential for digestion though it does not contain any digestive enzymes.
The bile is taken by the hepatic duct and is stored in the gall bladder, which is situated on
the lower surface of the liver. The bile is concentrated and sent to duodenum through the
cystic duct when chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum. Bile contains bile salt,
bile pigment, mucin and water.
Due to liver damage or obstruction of the bile duct, bilirubin collects in excess
qualities in blood and changes the colour of the skin and the eyes. There may be changes
in the colour of the urine. This is called jaundice.
Functions of Bile Juice
1) It stimulates the functions of the proteolytic enzymes and the amylase.
2) It dissolves fatty acid and glycerol.
3) It coordinates with lipase to convert the fat into fatty acids.
4) It helps in the absorption of the fatty acid and glycerol.
5) With the help of other digestive juices it neutralizes the acidic nature of food.
Pancreas is an elongated structure lying across the posterior wall of the abdomen.
It is an exocrine as well as an endocrine gland. The pancreas not only produces the
pancreatic juice but also secretes hormones such as insulin and glucogon. It is released
directly in the blood which regulates the blood glucose level. The pancreatic juice contains
three enzymes. They are:
1) Trypsin
2) Amylase
3) Lipase
Besides three enzymes pancreatic juice contains large quantities of sodium
bicarbonate which neutralizes the hydrochloric acid present in the gastric juice secreted by
the stomach.
Task 10. Check your comprehension. Work with your partner asking and answering
the questions treated to the text above.
1) What are two chief functions of the digestive system?
2) What parts does the alimentary canal consist of?
3) What are the functions of the digestive system?
4) Where does the process of digestion take place?
5) What chemicals do the digestive juices contain?
6) Where is the liver situated and what does it secret?
7) What are the functions of liver?
8) Is bile juice essential for digestion?
9) What are the functions of bile juice?
10)What is the function of pancreas and what does it secret?