the presentation. - Massachusetts Farm to School

Supported in part by a NIFSI grant from the USDA NIFA, Award 2011-51110-30996.
Program Goal
• We want children to learn about how food is grown
and where it comes from by supporting local
• We want young children to eat more fruits and
vegetables and develop lifelong, healthy eating
• We want to help protect the health and well-being
of the young children in your care.
• Benefits of incorporating farm to preschool
• Fresh Produce and risk of foodborne illness
• Food safety for the kitchen and classroom
– 4 key food safety messages
Fruits and Vegetables
• Recommendations for preschoolers
– 1 to 1.5 cups of fruit
– 1 to 2 cups of vegetables
• Make half your plate fruits
and vegetables
Fruits and Vegetables
• Do most preschoolers eat the recommended
amount of fruits and vegetables?
• How many exposures needed to overcome
3 to 5
4 to 8
5 to 10
6 to 12
Farm to Preschool Activities
What farm to preschool activities do you
implement at your school?
Best Practices for Implementing
Farm to School
1. Incorporate local produce into meals and
2. Plant a garden at your school
3. Provide hands-on nutrition education
centered on fruits, vegetables and food
safety practices
Best Practices
4. Plan a field trip to a farm
5. Take the children to a
farmers’ market
6. Hold a harvest festival
7. Invite a farmer to visit your
Fresh Produce and
Foodborne Illness Risks
• Define foodborne illness
• Why are young children at greater risk for a
foodborne illness?
• Which foods pose the greatest risk for
Foodborne Illness Defined
• Foodborne Illness
– Illness caused by eating food that is contaminated
• Three types of contaminants:
– Chemical – cleaners, pesticides
– Physical – glass, wood, bandages, fingernails
– Biological – bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi
Young Children at Greater Risk
• Young children are at increased risk for
foodborne illness:
– Immune system is not fully developed
– Less stomach acid
– Weigh less, limited control over diet
• Small amounts of some
pathogens can cause illness
Fresh Produce and
Foodborne Illness Risk
• Fresh produce – can be a source
of foodborne illness
• Fresh produce was vehicle for
46% of all foodborne illnesses
from 1998-2008
• Produce linked to 38% of
hospitalizations, 23% of deaths
Produce Outbreaks by Item, 1998-2008
Source: FDA 2009
Fresh Produce and Contamination
• At risk for cross-contamination:
– On farm – animal feces, water, soil, other foods
– In transit – with raw meats or meat products
– At your center – unwashed hands, equipment
• How you purchase, store, handle, and prepare
fresh produce is important
Purchasing Fresh Produce
• Meet local and state standards:
– Certification by local or state health department
– Compliance with local, state, federal regulations
– Evidence of food safety plans, for example, Good
Agricultural Practices (GAP) or Commonwealth
Quality in MA
– Access to food safety inspection reports
Handling Fresh Produce
• Remove visible soil
• Wash fruits and vegetables in cool, running water
• Wash between leaves and stems
• Remove bruised or damaged areas
• Refrigerate cut melons, cut tomatoes and cut leafy greens
• Store above and away from other foods that can drip on
• Keep refrigerator at 41° F or colder
High Risk Foods
Unpasteurized juices and cider
Raw milk and cheese
Raw egg products
Raw meats, poultry, fish
Bean sprouts – do not serve to young children
Best Practices
• Purchase fresh produce from approved sources
• Follow recommended food safety practices:
– Select produce without bruises, holes, torn skin
– Wash produce in potable/drinkable, running water –
even those that are peeled
– Store produce away from raw meat/poultry
– Do not serve high risk foods – unpasteurized juices
and cider, raw cheese, milk, eggs, meat
– Do not grow or serve bean sprouts
Food Safety in the Kitchen and Classroom
• Clean
– Wash hands, surfaces, equipment, fruits and vegetables
• Separate
– Keep raw and ready-to-eat foods
• Chill
– Keep cold foods cold.
• Cook
– Keep hot foods hot.
• When to wash your hands:
– Before eating, handling or preparing food
– Before touching ready-to-eat foods
– After touching raw or undercooked
meat, fish, poultry, eggs
– After using the restroom
– After touching animals or working
in the garden
• Wet hands with warm water
• Apply soap
• Rub hands / arms
20 seconds
Clean under nails,
between fingers
• Rinse with warm water
• Dry hands with paper towel or air dryer
• Keep surfaces and equipment clean and
– Counters, microwave plates, desks, tables
• Remove visible soil with hot, soapy water,
rinse with clean water
• Once clean, sanitize
• 1 tablespoon bleach/ 1 gallon water
• Air dry
• Washing fresh produce – even foods you peel
– Remove outer leaves
– Wash in running tap water
– Rub leaves and stalks or use vegetable brush
– Wash before peeling
– Then wash your hands and
Cross Contamination - The transfer of harmful
substances from one food or surface to another.
How Does Cross
Contamination Happen?
• Food to Food
• Hand to Food
• Equipment to Food
• Surfaces to Food
• Insects, Pests, Pets to Food
Preventing Cross Contamination
• Clean and sanitize all equipment
• Use separate cutting boards – wash and sanitize
between uses
• Store ready-to-eat foods separately
• Use separate utensils
• Single use gloves
– Wash hands before putting on gloves
– Change gloves before moving to a new task,
– Wash hands after taking gloves off
• Keep food cold to prevent microbial growth
• Temperature Danger Zone
• Use a refrigerator thermometer
Danger Zone -Bacteria grows
best here - 41-135ºF
• If you serve food family style
– Limit time at room temperature to no more than 2
hours - 1 hour in warm weather
– From cooking/refrigeration through service
• Leftovers
– Clean containers, covered into
refrigerator quickly
• Cool large amounts of food quickly
• Maintain freezers at 0° F or below
• Label and date food
• Thaw frozen food:
– In the refrigerator
– Running cold water – cook immediately
– In the microwave – cook immediately
– During cooking
• Keep bagged lunches cold
– Ask parents to pack lunches in an
insulated bag with a frozen gel pack
• Keep these bagged lunch items cold:
– Peeled or cut fruits and vegetables
– Salads (for example, macaroni, potato)
– Deli meats, any type of meat, poultry, seafood
– Eggs, milk products
Best Practices
• Clean: Wash hands, surfaces, equipment,
fruits and vegetables
– Foodservice staff, teachers and volunteers wash
hands often
– Children wash hands often
– Surfaces and equipment are cleaned before and
after preparing raw produce
– Fresh produce is washed before being prepared or
served – even when peeled
Best Practices
• Separate: Keep raw & ready-to-eat foods
– Clean and sanitize all kitchen and classroom
surfaces used for food preparation
– Use single use gloves when preparing and serving
raw produce and ready-to-eat foods
– Use separate cutting boards for produce
– Store raw produce separately from raw meat, fish,
and poultry in the refrigerator.
Best Practices
• Chill: Keep cold foods cold
– Keep foods out of the temperature danger zone – 41 –
135° F
– Keep cold foods below 41° F
– Keep refrigerator at or below 41° F
– Refrigerate leftovers quickly
– Do not thaw food at room temperature
– Refrigerate children’s lunches at school
– Send a note to parents with ideas for keeping food
Best Practices
• Cook: Keep hot food hot
– Keep foods out of the danger zone 41-135° F
– Keep hot foods above 135° F
– Use a food thermometer
Thank You!
1. Please fill out the post-test
2. Don’t forget to pickup your