Started by Siddharta
Found enlightenment
under forest trees of
the Himmalayas
Four Noble Truths: All
of life is suffering; the
cause of suffering is
desire; the end of
desire leads to the
end of suffering; the
means to end desire
is a path of discipline
and meditation
Attained major status with prince
 Nearly 4 million followers
 Way to liberation is to live a life of
nonviolence and renunciation.
 Animals, plants , and human beings
have living souls and each of these
souls has an equal value.
 Strict Vegetarians.
Considered to be the youngest of the
world religions
 Founded by Guru Nanak around 500
years ago.
 23 million followers.
Zoroastrianism (Parsis)
One of the oldest
religions in the
From Persia (Iran)
Most live in Mumbai.
Believe existence of
one invisible god.
Continuous war
between good
forces and evil
Zoroastrianism (Parsis)
God is represented
in temples through
fire, symbolizes light
Good will win if
people do good
deeds, thing
positively and speak
Indian Cuisine
Integral part of Indian culture
 Part of weddings, festivals, and day-today living
 Multiple courses include chutneys, dips,
and desserts
Cell Phones
Cell phones become
extremely popular
Fastest growing cell
phone market
2006, overtook
China in the number
of new telephone
subscribers per
Call Centers
English dedicated
as official language
of southern India
Many U.S.
outsource customer
service because of
India’s skill with
Attractive salaries
for young people
Call Centers
Work at night in
India when it is
daytime in the U.S.
Dual Identity
Employee turnover
is high
Changed the culture
for young people,
more western style
Call Center (Downside)
Young people less
likely to follow
religious functions
Percieved by peers
to have limited
Team sport of 11
players on two
Great deal of
nationalistic fervor
Introduced to India
by the British in
Ritual of the corrida
 Hierachical march, to the paso doble
 Banderilleros
 Picadores
 Banderillas
 Matador
 Muleta
 Finale
Minoan culture 2000 BCE
 Roman circus
 Moors
An example of the confluence of
cultures on the Iberian peninsula
la corrida de toros
 Ritual
 Pride
 Individualism and Collectivism
 Emotionalism
Multiple Cuadrillas
Major waves and successions of people
 The Romans (200 BCE)
 Christianity
 Infrastructure
 Castilian
 Hispania  España
The Moors
700 year presence
 4,000+ modern Spanish words
 Agriculture
○ Arroz (al ruzz)
○ Aceite (al zait)
○ Naranja (naranj)
 Irrigation
 Mathematics
 Medicine
Moorish Architecture
Ritual of the bullfight
Seizure of Granada in 1492
 At times out of control (Spanish Inquisition)
Religion is still incredibly important
 90% Catholic, ½ the population attend mass
Still strictly individualistic, with Spanish flair
 Personal relationship with God
Definite Moorish influence
 si Dios quiere
 ojalá
○ Wa sha’ allah
Roman influence - paganism
The drive toward collectivism
Spurred by the many invasions
 Safety and security
 Strong societal bonds
 Social programs
Ultimate unit – family, friends, town or
 Women’s roles
 Men’s roles
Sol y Sombra
Three ticket choices at la corrida
 Sol
 Sombra
 Sol y Sombra
Geographic split
Foreign influences and geographic
 Gallego (Galician)
 Castellano (Castilian)
 Vasco (Basque)
 Catalán (Catalonian)
Soul and emotion
Individual and collective identity
Every region has its own version
- But every one is still distinctly flamenco
Malagueñas – from Málaga
Spanish Culture and Attitude
Pride and Spanish individualism
produces a number of outcomes for
Spanish culture
 “Because Spaniards refuse to subordinate
their personal beliefs to a collective goal,
and because everyone has to have a say in
everything, there is a tendency for nothing
ever to get done.”
 Gestor
 work is seen as a means to an end, not an
end to itself
Negocio – the Spanish term for
business, translates as “the negation of
 Children are brought up to enjoy leisure
and travel – not to get jobs and be
 Pride
 Being fashionable (like the matadors)
 Individualistic, with a respect of hierarchy
○ paseillo
haciendo negocios
Improvements since Franco
 1986 joined EU
 Women now make up half of university
Working hours
 The withering tradition of siesta
○ 9-1 & 3-8
Pride and individualism
Patience for mañana
Three important elements
- Cara
- Individualism
- Uncertainty avoidance
Two sided card (present to receptionist
Multiple names
- Patriarchal - Father’s first surname (usually
on its own)
- Mother’s first surname
Be on time
Respect hierarchy
Form relationships first!!!
- Meals and public spaces
Know your facts and demonstrate order
Be modest – do not be overly assertive
Long live the Matador!
Size: 92,090 sq km
 Nationality: Portuguese
 Language: Portuguese
 Population: 10,781,459
Portugal's History
Government: Parliamentary Democracy
 Chief of State: President Anibal Cavaco
 Head of government: Prime Minister Pedro
Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho
Member of NATO and EU
 GDP fell again in 2011
 Lack of foreign investment
Portuguese Bullfight
Portuguese Bull Fighting
 Cultural Characteristics:
 Pride in Traditions
 Stratification Amid Unity
 Artistry and Human Gore
 Profitless Bravery
Pride in Traditions
Traditional attire
 Community and Church
 97% are Catholic
Role of People
 Men
 Women
 Society as a whole
Stratification Amid Unity
Critical that the group is successful
 Importance of family
 Closeness
 Lunch (family and work)
 Socializing with others
Artistry and Human Gore
 Ceramics and tiles
 Architecture
Bullfight as an art form
 Spanish vs. Portuguese bull fighting
Profitless Bravery
No profit
 Saving face
Conducting Business
Bribery is common
 Critical to develop relationships
 Detail oriented
 Importance of duplication
 Stubborn but persistent
 Globalization
Measuring Industry Globalization
Four types of industry globalization drivers:
 Market
 Cost
 Government
 Competitive
Measures vary, but most can be
Market globalization drivers
Requires both qualitative and quantitative
 Common customer needs
 Global customers and channels
 Transferable marketing
 Lead countries
Cost globalization drivers
Earliest and most difficult to measure.
 Global economies of scale and scope
 Steep experience effects
 Sourcing efficiencies
 Favorable logistics
 Differences in country costs
 High product development cost
 Fast-changing technology
Government globalization drivers
Good understanding of worldwide trade
and other government policies required.
 Favorable trade policies—tariffs,
subsidies, and nontariff barriers
 Compatible technical standards
 Common marketing regulations
 Government-owned competitors and
Competitive globalization drivers
Requires an effective global competitive
intelligence system.
 High exports and imports
 Competitors from different continents
 Interdependent countries
 Globalized competitors
 Transferable competitive advantage
Measuring Global Strategy Levers
Comparative Measurement
 Measurement of Competitors
 Comparing measurements for multiple
Global Market Participation
Global Market Share
 Global Strategic Market Share
 Global Share Balance
Market Presence
Number of selling countries
 Krispy Kreme is in 20 countries besides the
Global Coverage
Global Products and Services
Mix standardization
 Original glazed is 100% standardized
 Other types having varying percentages
Content standardization
 Fairly low percentage is
nonstandard (only the
toppings and glaze is
Global Location of Activities
Concentration of individual
 Concentration of entire value chain
Global Marketing
Marketing intensity in different regions
 Uniformity of marketing
 Overall marketing uniformity
 Only started advertising in 2006
Global Competitive Moves
Cross-area subsidization
 Counterparry
 Globally coordinated sequence of
Global Competitive Moves
Targeting of global competitors
 Developing competitor plans
 Preemptive use of global strategy
Measuring Global Organization
Measuring global organization is very
specific due to every organization being
To better understand a company’s global
organization, there are specific elements
to help to measure it.
Measures of Global Organization
There are many elements which
determine global organization.
1) Organization Structure
 2) Management Processes
 3) People
 4) Culture
Organization Structure
One global head
 International division
 Functional line heads
 Functional line staff heads
 Strength of business dimension
Management Processes
Global strategic information system
 Cross-country coordination
 Global knowledge sharing
 Global budgeting
 Global customer management
 Global performance review and
Foreign nationals in home country
 Home country nationals in other
 Foreign nationals in other countries
 Global boards of directors
Global Culture
 Interdependent culture
Measuring Regional Focus
 Iberian Peninsula
Luxottica Headquarters
Milan Italy
4 Measurements of Regional
 Cost
 Government
 Competitive
Iberian Peninsula
 Luxottica Iberica Sa
EU Market
Italy, Belgium, Germany, Spain Portugal,
France, Turkey, Finland, Norway, Spain,
Israel, Poland, Portugal, Switzerland,
Sweden, UK, Austria, Greece ….