DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT K-U-D (Know, Understand, Do) Chart Grade/Course 9th Unit Two Unit Title: “The Power of the Written Word” Content Standards: CC.9-10.R.L.1 Key Ideas and Details: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. CC.9-10.R.I.1 Key Ideas and Details: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. CC9-10RL2: Key Ideas and Details: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC.9-10.R.I.2 Key Ideas and Details: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC9-10RL3: Key Ideas and Details: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC.9-10.R.I.3 Key Ideas and Details: Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events, including the order in which the points are made, how they are introduced and developed, and the connections that are drawn between them. CC.9-10.R.L.4 Craft and Structure: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e.g., how the language evokes a sense of time and place; how it sets a formal or informal tone). CC.9-10 W.2: Write informative or explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10W6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology's capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. CC9-10SL1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacherled) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. CC9-10SL5: Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. CC9-10L1a Use parallel structure.* CC9-10L4a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. **Focus standards in grey. Know (Note: concepts, facts, formulas, key vocabulary) Students will Know: Literary Texts Informational Texts Understand (Big idea, large concept, declarative statement of an enduring understanding) Do (Skills, competencies) Students will: Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Textual Evidence Literary Terms/Devices Character Types & development Story elements Steps for conducting an analysis Components of an Essay Steps for compare & contrast Parallelism Various uses of technology Steps in Collaboration An author’s language, stylistic choices, and devices lead to the primary function of the story. inferences drawn from the text. (CC9-10RL1) (CC9-10RI1) Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings/Use context as a clue to the meanings of words(CC9-10RL4) (CC9-10L4a) Examine literary devices used to convey the theme of a story(CC910RL2) Evaluate the details that support the theme (CC9-10RL2) Explain what specific lines of dialog reveal about a character (CC9-10RL3) Analyze complex characters(CC910RL3) Analyze the plot sequence of a story(CC9-10RL3) Explain how authors’ choices about presentation of information controls readers’ understandings of the central idea (CC9-10RI3) Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CC.9-10 W.4) Write an effective compare/contrast essay (CC.9-10 W.2) Use parallelism (CC9-10L1a) Use technology appropriately (CC.910 W.6) Participate in collaborative discussions (CC9-10SL1) Use digital media in presentations (CC.9-10 W.6)( CC9-10SL5) DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Unit Essential Question: How does the study of an author’s style assist in the understanding of the story’s plot or message? Key Learning: An author’s language, stylistic choices, and devices lead to the primary function of the text. Lesson Essential Question 1 Lesson 1 Vocabulary How does plot sequence affect the telling of a story? Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution Lesson Essential Question 2 Lesson 2 Vocabulary How do I use comparing and contrasting to reach a conclusion? Compare, Contrast, Conclusion Lesson Essential Question 3 Lesson 3 Vocabulary How do authors build suspense in a story? Mood/Tone, Prediction, Flashback, Foreshadow, Irony Lesson Essential Question 4 Lesson 4 Vocabulary Why is it important to understand the themes/main idea and details within a text? Main Idea, Theme, Details, Biography, Autobiography, Conflict, Man vs. Society, Man vs. Nature, Man vs. Self Lesson Essential Question 5 Lesson 5 Vocabulary How does character development affect the telling of a story? Protagonist, Antagonist, Narrator DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Lesson Essential Question 6 Lesson 6 Vocabulary How can experiences change people/characters? Static Character, Round Character, Dynamic Character, Flat Character DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Culminating Activity (Activity that students will do with the unit’s concepts and skills to demonstrate mastery.) Unit Topic: Short Story –“The Power of the Written Word” Title/Concept PowerPoint Presentation or Short Film Culminating Activity Essential Question Paragraph Description How does the study of an author’s style assist in the understanding of the story’s plot or message? Students will write and display a PowerPoint presentation or short film (this can be completed individually or with a partner). The presentation will express the connection between the author’s life and the stories, essays or songs he/she produces. Use excerpts from the biography and author’s works to illustrate thesis. Essential vocabulary from unit will also be utilized within presentation. Students and teacher will evaluate presentation using the established rubric. Students will evaluate a sample project utilizing established rubric. Mini-Lesson (Quick lesson prior to activity.) Time (In Days) Steps or Task Analysis (Details of activity.) Summarize/Share Differentiation Revise/Review Resources & Materials 4 – 5 Days 1) Students will read three sources (Biography, and two short stories, essays, poems or songs written by an author. 2) Choose at least three connections between author’s life and author’s works. 3) Cite several examples for each of the three areas. 4) Write your presentation in either PowerPoint format or short film format. Then proof read. Make adjustments. 5) Brainstorm a list of inexpensive props to use in your presentation. Collect props 6) Rehearse presentation. 7) Next film the presentation. View and decide if you need to retake. Present your project to the class/school. Complete a selfevaluation. Complete an essay, brochure or poster version of your project. This will be completed by teacher upon completing the unit. Flip cameras, Microsoft PowerPoint, Microsoft Publisher, short stories, biographies, props, etc. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Rubric for Culminating Activity Scale Criteria Requirements Content Textual Evidence Organization Technology Mechanics 4 3 2 1 All requirements are met and exceeded. All requirements are met. One requirement was not completely met. More than one requirement was not completely met. Covers topic indepth with details and examples. Subject knowledge is excellent. Uses essential vocabulary appropriately. Includes essential knowledge about the topic. Subject knowledge appears to be good. Uses essential vocabulary. Includes essential information about the topic but there are 1-2 factual errors. Uses essential vocabulary ineffectively. Content is minimal OR there are several factual errors. Does not use essential vocabulary. Product provides specific textual evidence from resources to support opinion. Product provides some textual evidence from resources to support opinion Product provides very little textual evidence from resources to support opinion Product provides no textual evidence from resources to support opinion Content is well organized using headings or bulleted lists to group related material. Uses headings or bulleted lists to organize, but the overall organization of topics appears flawed. Content is logically organized for the most part. There was no clear or logical organizational structure, just lots of facts. Makes excellent use of font, color, graphics, effect, etc., to enhance the presentation. Makes good use of font, color, graphics, effect, etc., to enhance the presentation. Makes use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. occasionally these detract from the presentation content. Use of font, color, graphics, effects etc. but these often distract from the presentation content. Very few misspellings or grammatical errors. Five or less misspellings or grammatical errors. Six misspellings or grammatical errors. More than six misspellings or grammatical errors. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Student Assessments (How students will indicate learning and understanding of the concepts in the unit. Note: Can have multiple assessments, one on each page.) Unit Topic: Short Story Unit –“The Power of the Written Word” Title Description Content Assessment for “The Monkey’s Paw” Read each of the following questions. Then choose the letter of the best answer.(10 points each) The difference between Mr. White’s attitude and Morris’s attitude about the monkey’s paw is that A. Mr. White shows no interest, but Morris is obsessed with the item B. Morris takes the matter seriously, but Mr. White questions the paw’s power C. Mr. White seems hostile toward the paw, but Morris reflects fondly on it D. Morris keeps trying to change the topic, but Mr. White continues to ask about it 2. Why does Mr. White wish for two hundred pounds? A. Morris tells Mr. White that wishing for money is sensible. B. Mr. White spends too much money paying Morris for the paw. C. Herbert suggests to his father that two hundred pounds will help pay off their house. D. Mrs. White complains about the state of Mr. White’s clothes. 3. Mrs. White removes her apron and apologizes for her husband’s garments to the gentleman at the door because she A. feels embarrassed about the way in which her family lives compared to their neighbors B. sees how well he is dressed and thinks that he might be connected with the two hundred pounds C. admires him and decides to use her wish to have a higher status in society D. knows he is from Maw and Meggins and does not want her son to be embarrassed about his home life 4. What mood do you find in the story when the Whites stop speaking to one another after Herbert’s death? A. hopeless grief B. quiet thought C. hurtful anger D. silent blame 5. The detail that helps you predict that Mrs. White will want to use the paw to wish for Herbert to return is when she A. pulls a chair across the floor to unlock the door B. asks Mr. White whether he destroyed the paw C. sits at the window and cries all night D. laughs at the thought of the paw DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Short Response On Time (In Days) Differentiation a separate sheet of paper, answer the following questions based on your knowledge of the short story. (10 points each) 6. How is the mood the morning after Morris’s visit different from the previous night, after Mr. White makes his wish? Include a detail from the story to support your response. 7. Why does Mr. White say that Herbert’s death is particularly hard? Extended Response Answer the following question based on your knowledge of the short story. Write one or two paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper. (30 points) 8. Who can you blame the most for the events at the end of the story: Mr. White, Herbert, or Morris? Use details from the story to support your response. 30 minute assessment Students will answer one short response question and one extended response question. Revise/Review Teacher will revise and review throughout the unit. Resources & Materials Graphic Organizers DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Student Assessments (How students will indicate learning and understanding of the concepts in the unit. Note: Can have multiple assessments, one on each page.) Unit Topic: Short Story Unit –“The Power of the Written Word” Title Description Content Assessment for “ Read each of the following questions. Then choose the letter of the best answer.(10 points each) 1. 2. 3. 4. Who does Dr. Rash think of as the "Living Legend"? A. The Old Woman B. Herself C. Elvex D. Dr. Calvin What has Dr. Rash done that has Calvin concerned? A. She programmed Elvex to have brain patterns closer to that of a human. B. She taught Elvex to speak C. She took Elvex outside the laboratory. D. She programmed Elvex to give orders. According to Calvin, why must humans dream? A. to relieve stress B. to reorganize and get rid of knots and snarls C. to rejuvenate their brains, or make them younger D. to free the imagination What did the man in Elvex's dream say? A. "Do not trust the humans." B. "Let my people go." C. "I am not a robot, but a man." D. "You shall be free, my brothers." Short Answer Questions (20 pts each) Time (In Days) Differentiation 5. When they reactivate Elvex by speaking his name, they ask him how he knew he had been dreaming. What does he tell them about how he knew he had been dreaming? 6. Dr. Susan Calvin and Dr. Rash ask Elvex to tell them his dream. What was Elvex’s dream? 7. What laws of robotics did not seem to exist for Elvex in his dream? 30 minute assessment Students will answer one short response question and one extended response question. Revise/Review Teacher will revise and review throughout the unit. Resources & Materials Graphic Organizers Student Assessments (How students will indicate learning and understanding of the concepts in the unit. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Note: Can have multiple assessments, one on each page.) Unit Topic: Short Story Unit –“The Power of the Written Word” Title Description Content Assessment for The Necklace Read each of the following questions and choose the best answer. Each question is worth 10 points. 1. Madame Loisel is unhappy because she A. thinks that her husband should get a promotion at work B. dislikes that her butlers sleep in the overstuffed armchairs C. believes that she should be living a life with many luxuries D. resents the servant girl who does housework for her 2. To buy an expensive dress for his wife,Monsieur Loisel A. eats only one meal per day B. spends his small inheritance C. works a second job D. forgoes the purchase of a rifle 3. Why does Madame Loisel visit MadameForestier? A. to find out whether her friend is well B. to compare party dresses C. to borrow jewelry for the party D. to ask advice of Madame Forestier 4. Given Madame Loisel's actions after replacing the necklace, you can make the inference that Madame Loisel A. accepts the realities of being poor and indebt B. obsesses over revenge against high society C. is consumed with despair and self-pity D. enjoys cooking and cleaning the house Short Response Answer the following questions based on your knowledge of the story. Write a sentence or two on a separate sheet of paper. (10 points each) DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT 1. How would you describe the Loisels' financial situation at the beginning of the story? Support your answer with two examples from the story. 2. What inference can you make about the Loisels based on their efforts to replace the necklace? Include a detail from the story in your response. Extended Response Answer one of the following questions based on your knowledge of the story. Write one or two paragraphs on a separate sheet of paper. (20 points) 3. Discuss two flaws in Madame Loisel's character that lead to her troubles. Use details from the story to explain your answer. 4. Do you think that the Loisels deserve their fate? Explain why or why not. Include details from the story in your explanation. Time (In Days) Differentiation 30 minute assessment Students will answer one short response question and one extended response question. Revise/Review Teacher will revise and review throughout the unit. Resources & Materials Graphic Organizers DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Student Assessments (How students will indicate learning and understanding of the concepts in the unit. Note: Can have multiple assessments, one on each page.) Unit Topic: Short Story Unit –“The Power of the Written Word” Title Performance Task Description Students will read the literary selection, “The Beggar on Dublin (O’Connell) Bridge”, by Ray Bradbury, “Homeless”, by Anna Quinlan, and view a public service announcement on teen homelessness. Throughout the readings and video clip, students will take notes and answer three constructed response questions. Finally, students will complete a textbased essay answering the following: “Of the three viewpoints, which two medium presented the most powerful argument surrounding the issue of homelessness?” Cite evidence from the text/video to support your opinion. Students constructed response answers as well as essay will be scored utilizing a rubric. Constructed Response Questions: The Beggar on Dublin Bridge looks at the conflict between the main character and the persons begging on the bridge. What is the conflict the main character is grappling with and how does he come to terms with this conflict? In Homeless, how might Quindlen be said to give new meaning to the old cliché "Home is where the heart is" (par. 4)? How does Quindlen vary the sentences in paragraph 7 that give examples of why homeless people avoid shelters? What position does she want readers to recognize and accept? In the video, “Teen Homelessness”, what information was provided in this source that you do not find in the other two sources? Why do you believe the video is the only source for the information? Use constructed response rubric from lesson 1 to score these questions. Time (In Days) Differentiation 2-3 days http://adifferentlight.wordpress.com/fiction-and-poetry-about-the-homeless/ Revise/Review Resources & Materials Teacher will revise and review throughout the unit. Materials from textbook, You Tube PSA, notes, rubric. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+beggar+on+Dublin+bridge.-a03579795 http://www.nexuslearning.net/books/holt_elementsoflit-3/Collection%207/homeless.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RLZF9Gq1CT0 DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Research: Performance Task (Essay) Students’ Names: ________________________________________ CATEGORY 5-4 3 2 1 Quality of Information (Double weighting) Information clearly relates to the main topic and answers the question. It includes salient examples, lucid analysis and clear links to the question. Information relates to the main topic and answers the question. It includes some salient examples, analysis and links to the question. Information has a tenuous link to the main topic. Some details and/or examples are given, but might be irrelevant to the question. Information has little or nothing to do with the main topic. Organization (Half weighting) Information is very organized with well-constructed paragraphs and very clear main points. Information is organized with well-constructed paragraphs and clear main point. Information is The information organized, but appears to be paragraphs are not disorganized. well-constructed, and the main point is unclear. Introduction The introduction consists of a very good argument, and outlines briefly the factors to be examined, and is very consistent with the essay. The introduction consists of a good argument, and outlines briefly the factors to be examined, and is consistent with the essay. The introduction consists of a rather weak argument, and outlines briefly the factors to be examined, but is not very consistent with the essay. The introduction does not have an argument, and does not outline the factors to be examined. Conclusion The conclusion deals fully with the requirements of the question, and is very consistent with the essay. The conclusion deals with the requirements of the question, and is consistent with the essay. The conclusion deals partially with the requirements of the question, but is not very consistent with the essay. The conclusion does not deal with the requirements of the question, and is not consistent with the essay. Mechanics (Half weighting) No grammatical, Almost no A few grammatical spelling or grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. spelling or punctuation errors. punctuation errors Many grammatical, spelling, or punctuation errors. Sources All sources (information and graphics) are accurately documented in the desired format. Total marks: _________/ 30 All sources (information and graphics) are accurately documented, but a few are not in the desired format. All sources Some sources are (information and not accurately graphics) are documented. accurately documented, but many are not in the desired format. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Launch Activity (Develops student interest by providing hook to motivate and link to prior knowledge.) Unit Topic: Short Story Unit –“The Power of the Written Word” Resources: http://www.mjsd.k12.wi.us/map/staff/LarsenH/documents/KIMVocabularyStrategy.pdf Launch Activity Essential Question or Name of Activity Description Essential Vocabulary Trading Cards Students will utilize Microsoft Word or Publisher to create vocabulary trading cards for three or four of the essential vocabulary words. They will print out enough copies for the class and then trade so that everyone has a set of twenty-two cards. Time (Days) Mini-Lesson (Quick lesson prior to activity.) Steps or Task Analysis (Details of activity.) 1-2 Days Show students how to utilize Word or Publisher to create a vocabulary card. Teacher will model how to create a vocabulary trading card. (All students will have a template to use, learn how to create definitions and select graphics for cards). Teacher will review trading card rubric with class. Next, students will choose three – four essential vocabulary words and then create cards for them. Students will copy and paste enough cards for themselves and their classmates –then print them out. Teacher will assess cards to calculate prior knowledge of the class. Students will work with a partner to analyze products created against rubric. Cards will be revised. These cards will be utilized throughout the unit to build an in-depth understanding of the essential terms. Summarize/Share Cards will be shared with classmates. Cards will be utilized to complete K.I.M. graphic organizers. Students will create definition of each word in their own terms. These words will continue to be taught in the context of the stories/essays within the unit. Complete K.I.M. graphic organizer (knowledge, information, memory clue) www.mjsd.k12.wi.us/map/staff/LarsenH/documents/KIMVocabularyStrategy.pdf *Use in the inner outer circle review *Use to scaffold -"I have...Who Has" review game Once students have completed cards and finished trading them, teacher will preview student learning map for the unit. Differentiation Student will create one trading card. Revise/Review Resources & Materials At the end of the unit this launch activity will be reviewed for its usefulness. Publisher or Word, clip art, colored printer, scissors. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Sample Vocabulary Trading Card Flashback Define: a scene or event from the past that appears in a narrative out of chronological order Sentence: Much of the film's exposition is handled through flashbacks. Forms of words: flashbacks DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I, Unit II, Lesson 1 Learning Goals Standards for this Lesson CC9-10RL2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC9-10RL3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC.9-10 W.2: Write informative or explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas, concepts, and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10L4a Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word's position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Students Will Know Students Will Be Able To Foreshadowing Mood/Tone Prediction Plot Elements Describe the use of foreshadowing within the plot Make predictions about the characters Diagram the plot of the short story “The Monkey’s Paw” Lesson Essential Question How does plot sequence affect the telling of a story? Activating Strategy: Students will complete an anticipation guide for the short story “The Monkey’s Paw”. (960 LL/8th grade, but with text complexity issues, it is appropriate for 9th grade students) Students can answer the following question: “Have you ever been offered something that seemed too good to be true? Did you accept the offer hastily, or weigh the pros and cons, and the probability of success? If you accepted it in haste, did you regret it later? Describe your situation using the guidelines from the constructed response rubric. R.A.R.E. or R.A.C.E.R. format may be used to scaffold response (Restate the Question; Answer the Question, Reasons/Support for your answer, Examples, Elaborate or End). Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy: Essential Vocabulary (Tier III): Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution, Mood/Tone, Prediction, Flashback, Foreshadow, Irony Academic Vocabulary (Tier II): Marred, Attribute, Resolution, Appeal, Scarcely, Audible Give students the vocabulary words and their definitions. Allow them to use this to engage in the game. Hot Seat Have one student sit in the front of the classroom on a chair facing away from the blackboard. On the board you will write a vocabulary word but the person in the front of the room is not allowed to look at it. The student will ask yes or no questions to his classmates to determine what the word might be. The student has 10 questions available until he must guess what the word is. You can make this an individual contest or you can have the class separated into several teams to add a competitive element. Read more : http://www.ehow.com/list_6580695_fun-vocabulary-activities-high-school.html Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Read background about author provided in the text. Students should brainstorm a list of predictions (individually, in pairs and then share ideas as a class) as a as to what the title “The Monkey’s Paw” might mean. Review the terms mood/tone, prediction, foreshadow and flashback learned during the launch exercise. Show examples of these terms. Students will listen to the audio version of the short story and use Cornell Note-Taking organizer to make predictions as the story continues. Stop on page two and ask students to write down their answers to this question: “What are some clues that have been shared in the plot so far that might give us an idea about the ending?” Share your prediction with a partner. Is there any information in the first two pages that could provide foreshadowing as to what might happen in the story? Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: On an index card, write down your definition for the term foreshadow and give an example of this from our story or Graphic Organizer: *Plot Organizer *Cornell Note-Taking DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT another story you have read. Learning Activity 2: Students will continue to listen to or read page three orally in pairs. List three things they learn about the monkey’s paw on their Cornell Notetaking organizer. Review answers. Then have students pair up to make another prediction: Why did Mr. White rescue the monkey’s paw from the fire? What are his plans? What evidence from the text led you to make these predictions? Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: List three facts that you have learned from the story, list two predictions you have made about the characters of the story, and list one question you want answered by reading the story. Learning Activity 3: Finish reading scenes one, two and three with the students. As they listen, have students list any words or character’s actions that tell what the mood or tone of the story could be at this point in the story. Students share answers at the end of scene three. Read scenes four and five, listen to see if the first wish was granted and if so describe how it happened in the note organizer. Finally, have students read scene six with a partner or listen to the audio version. Answer the question “What three wishes did Mr. White make? Were they wise choices? Cite evidence to support your responses. Teacher will view plot PowerPoint with students Then students will complete the third assessment prompt. http://swenglish9.weebly.com/9th-grade-literature-unit.html Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Students will complete plot graphic organizer with a partner. Then answer the essential question: How does plot sequence affect the telling of a story? Assignment: (Text-Based Essay Questions) Students will choose one of the following topics to discuss in an essay: (Based on the short story “The Monkey’s Paw”) In the story “The Monkey’s Paw” the author, WW Jacob uses many literary devices to build suspense. Discuss the strategies the author utilizes and cite examples from the text to support your opinions. OR The plot development of the “Monkey’s Paw” had several twists and turns. Describe the plot and explain how the author sequenced the story to hook the reader. Independent Practice: Students will complete a close read of the informational text: Pro-Wrestling - Senegal Style. With a partner, students will read the first two paragraphs and make a prediction as to how this text may be connected to the story just read "The Monkey's Paw". Students will write prediction in graphic organizer. Students will take turns reading the story aloud and to find the connection. (Both stories discuss the use of talisman). Students will list possible connections as they read. Class will discuss ideas. Students will re-read the first four paragraphs with partner to answer the following: What are some possible problems that may stem from this sport? Cite information from the article that supports your answer. Students will re-read paragraphs 7-11 on page two to answer the following: “How does spirituality play a part in Senegal Pro-Wrestling?" Cite textual evidence to support your answer. Groups will share answers with class. Summarizing Strategy: Students will return to the anticipation guide and complete the activity again. The class will revisit the questions together and discuss how plot sequence affects the telling of a story. Differentiation: (advanced students) Complete the magnet summarizing strategy for each scene. Model scene one for the group. Students will work in groups to complete a magnet summary sentence for the other five scenes. http://www.vriuvm.org/members/lli/additional_resources/Magnet%20Summary%20Template.pdf Resources: Plot Diagram: http://swenglish9.weebly.com/uploads/6/9/2/5/6925541/plotdiagram.pdf DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Cornell Note-Taking organizer: http://www.uteed.net/jom/c16.pdf Close Read: http://bpscurriculumandinstruction.weebly.com/uploads/1/0/1/3/10131776/grade_8_unit_3_monkey_paw.pdf (Text) http://www.nexuslearning.net/books/holt-eol2/Collection%203/monkey%20play.htm http://www.teachervision.fen.com/tv/printables/Monkeys-Paw.pdf (Audio) Learn Zillion: https://learnzillion.com/lessonsets/594-close-reading-literature-the-monkey-s-paw http://thedramapod.com/drupal/node/327 http://literalsystems.org/abooks/index.php/Audiobook/TheMonkeysPaw Additional Resources: http://jlbenet.com/monkeyspaw.html http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/toolkits/tk_modelunit.cfm?tk_id=21&tku_id=21&disp=planner DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Pro Wrestling, Senegal Style Published: May 24, 2012 DAKAR, Senegal — Many called it the biggest match of all time. Others, just the biggest of the season. Either way, it was too big for the limited seating at Demba Diop Stadium here — a fact not lost on those who started lining up outside at 9 a.m., 10 hours before the main event. The marquee combatants arrived in the late afternoon, welcomed by musical odes and a chorus of erratic drumming. Each defied his massive frame, nimbly performing the “dance of champions” and taking measures to repel black magic before stepping into the ring. The preparations at the stadium for the fight last month lasted hours; the bout, mere minutes. For the wrestlers and their fans, however, the outcome would endure for years. Although traditional wrestling exists in various forms throughout West Africa, the version in Senegal, known as laamb, has reached unparalleled heights. Laamb ends when one of the wrestlers puts his opponent’s head, back or both hands and knees to the ground. Unlike other forms, laamb allows punches in certain matches. Those matches are the ones upon which wrestlers, spectators, sponsors, promoters, shamans, musicians and journalists descend every weekend. “We used to wrestle for the honor of the village,” said Malick Thiandoum, a sports broadcaster for Senegalese Radio and Television. “Today, with the televised events, with the sponsors who inject lots of money to have visibility, it has become a breadwinner for lots of wrestlers.” The centuries-old sport began as a leisure activity for fishermen and farmers, as those with catches and crops to spare would occasionally wager them on the outcomes. Laamb became a viable profession around the time Senegal achieved independence from France in 1960; wrestlers began receiving about $200 for a match. Today, the going rate is $100,000 for top-tier matches, not including the sideshows. With appearance fees and kickbacks surrounding the bout last month, the combatants — Yahya Diop, who uses the stage name Yékini; and Omar Sakho, who goes by Balla Gaye 2 — each received about $300,000, according to the local news media. Such payouts are made possible through the sponsorship of multinational corporations operating in Senegal, which has experienced average annual gross domestic product growth of more than 4 percent over the last 20 years. But the country is plagued by wealth disparity. With nearly half the population living below the poverty line, laamb represents an opportunity for many young men to lift themselves, and the families they are responsible for, above that line. “I want to become a champion and a millionaire,” said Ousmane Sarr, 23, who has competed in many “simple” matches — in which punching is not permitted — but only one full-contact bout. “I need to get more matches with punching, then I can stop working as a mechanic when the season ends.” But the percentage of wrestlers who become rich in the sport is minuscule. Of more than 3,000 registered wrestlers, only a dozen earn more than $100,000 per combat, and those wrestlers have only one match per year. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “There is a mirage, a sort of dream, that the youth of the country are living,” Thiandoum said. “But we are in the process of telling them, ‘Be careful, because there is a gap between what you believe and reality.’ ” During a season, he added, a vast majority will earn less than $2,000 in the ring, and many will earn nothing. The sport, like much of the population, is migrating from rural to urban and finding a home in the suburbs of Dakar, where opportunities are low and crime is high. The magnitude of the recent Yékini-Balla match created the threat of violence, which was partly realized before the event. At a weigh-in-style news conference at the luxury Radisson Blu Hotel in Dakar less than two weeks before the combat, a brawl erupted between the wrestlers and their entourages inside, and outside among their supporters, who were dispersed by tear gas when the riot police arrived. Such incidents have put the sport under greater scrutiny. Starting next season, the National Committee for the Management of Wrestling, a 13-member board under the government’s Ministry of Sport, will expand its regulatory jurisdiction from the matches alone to all aspects of laamb. The decision was a response to the hotel incident, for which it could not penalize the wrestlers under the current system. The French telecommunications giant Orange, the principal sponsor of the Yékini-Balla bout, is also rethinking its approach to laamb in light of the violence. After the brawl, billboards reading “the passion is more intense with fair play” and “the model of a sport without violence” replaced images of the two wrestlers next to the Orange logo throughout Dakar. The company has not publicly discussed its approach for next season, except to say that laamb is an indispensable part of its interests in Senegal. “According to our surveys, it is the most popular sport here — even more than soccer,” said Magatte Diop, the director of sponsorship at Sonatel, Orange’s Senegalese subsidiary. “The sponsorship of wrestling gives us an emotional proximity to the Senegalese consumer.” The show is not just in the ring, and neither are the sponsors’ logos. A ticket for the gala allows the fan to watch five or six matches, which can last from a few seconds to 40 minutes, depending on the wrestlers’ style and the risks they are willing to take. With long breaks between the matches, the traditional spectacle is part of the show — including the mystical preparations, which were lavish on the day of the Yékini-Balla match. Their warm-ups suits, emblazoned with the Orange logo, came off to reveal magical talismans called gris-gris (pronounced gree-gree) as they prepared to douse themselves with protective baths of varying size and color. “The gris-gris and baths are just for protection against negative tongues and eyes,” said Mbaye Gueye Dieng, a marabout, or spiritual guide, in the mystical Sufi tradition prevalent among Senegal’s Muslim majority. Both wrestlers spent months preparing their bodies for the combat, training hours a day at their local facilities and abroad, where they have access to better equipment and training. But many believe that bouts are won and lost on the spiritual plane. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “The most important preparations are made in the home of the marabout,” Dieng said of the gris-gris containing Koranic verses, the baths infused with protective bark from the local baobab tree and other elements. When it was time for the match to begin, the referee, in his Orange-supplied uniform, blew his whistle to deafening roars. After 2 minutes 6 seconds of grappling and the occasional punch, Yékini suffered his first defeat in 20 professional matches over 15 years when Balla Gaye 2 put the back of the 320-pound King of the Arena into the sand. Balla Gaye 2 ran to his corner and hugged his manager, while Yékini’s team went to help the fallen, visibly shocked champion to his feet and out of the ring. On his way out, his smiling face betrayed an air of relief. Yékini, 38, would later say that he was considering retirement. “I have sacrificed my life and dedicated myself to my career,” he said. “In wanting to win everything, we risk losing everything.” His 24-year-old opponent presented Yékini with a painting, a Koran and a traditional boubou, or Senegalese tunic. “Every wrestler dreams of nothing but meeting Yékini in the ring and beating him,” Balla Gaye 2 said. “For what he has done in the sport, I give him these gifts along with my best wishes.” Not long after the match, speculation about the next one began. Another promoter has started planning a bout between Balla and the last wrestler to defeat him, Eumeu Sène, who does not respect the reign of the newly appointed King of the Arena. “I am the Emperor of the Arena,” Eumeu Sène said. The revenge match is being talked up as next year’s biggest match of all time. Séga Diagne contributed reporting. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I, Unit II, Lesson 2 Learning Goals Standards for this Lesson CC.9-10.R.I.2 Key Ideas and Details: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. Students Will Know -compare and contrast -similarity & difference -summarizing text Students Will Be Able To Select items for comparison Identify criteria to be compared The importance of summarizing your findings Lesson Essential Question How do I use comparing and contrasting to find how things are similar and different? Activating Strategy: Provide students with the graphic organizer that has a shark on one side and an octopus on the other. Have each student record words and phrases that relate to each of these animals. After two minutes, pose the question: What are some ways these animals are alike? How are they different? Introduce compare/contrast as finding the similarities and differences between or among items. Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy: Tier 2 Words Addressed: similarity difference (Taught in the context of the mini lesson) Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Explain that people are always comparing things. Brainstorm Graphic Organizer and list thing that could be compared. Explain to students that by comparing and contrasting to find similarities and differences, we can better understand the items we have selected. By comparing and contrasting items, we gain new ideas and insights. When we deepen our understanding of a concept and make connections, this often influences our perspectives and decision making. This will help us make informed choices, enable us to provide support for our decisions and make us more educated consumers. Compare & Contrast Organizer Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: List three things we can compare, two reasons we compare and one thing you learned. Learning Activity 2: Display the process for compare/contrast as you show the graphic organizer to the class and read the first two steps aloud: 1. Select items to compare 2. Select characteristics of the items on which to base comparisons 3. Explain how items are similar and different with respect to identified characteristics 4. Summarize what has been learned Tell the students that the first step in the process is to decide what they will compare and contrast. For this exercise, allow students to choose from the following options: playstation 3 v. xbox 360; soccer v. football; east coast v. west coast. That was the easy part! Next, tell students that step two, which is critical, is to ask “what is it about these two items that I want to compare or contrast?” Generate some ideas from the students, making sure they have at least three ways they are similar and three ways they are different (see Assignment: Write a compare and contrast poem. •1st line: One noun •2nd line: Two adjectives describing the noun •3rd line: Three –ing ending verbs associated with the noun •4th line: Four nouns – the first two are associated with the noun in the DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT double bubble map for examples). Then ask students if they can generate a title for the comparison category (ie. weather, equipment, and manufacturer). Have students work with their partner to redo the comparison done in the activator. They must first choose criteria for the comparison and then tell how the two animals are alike and different according to the criteria selected. Direct students to delineate between three and five criteria for comparison/contrast. Provide students with a copy of the Matrix to organize their thoughts. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: Pair Square and share their comparisons. Students should think aloud about which steps in the process they have followed to this point. Learning Activity 3: Ask students to read the final step in the process. Tell students this is where they summarize what they have learned by doing the comparison. They may say something like “Even though soccer and football have different rules and equipment, they both are fun team sports.” Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Have pairs write a summary statement for the shark/octopus comparison. Example: “Even though an octopus and a shark have many differences, they are both fierce ocean predators.” first line, the next two are related to the noun in the last line •5th line: Three –ing ending verbs associated with the noun in the last line •6th line: Two adjectives describing the noun in the last line •7th line: One noun that is being compared to the noun in the first line Summarizing Strategy: The Important Thing about Comparing/Contrasting Example: The Important thing about comparing and contrasting is to talk about not only the similarities, but also the differences between or among items. It’s important to know what characteristics you are going to compare. It’s important to select characteristics that are important and relevant. Most importantly, comparing and contrasting allows you to find the important similarities and differences. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT 2 Concept Compare and Contrast Concept 1 Concept 2 HOW ALIKE? HOW DIFFERENT? With Regard To Summarize: DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I, Unit II, Lesson 3 Learning Goals Standards for this Lesson CC9-10RL2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC9-10RL3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10SL1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. Students Will Know Students Will Be Able To -plot elements Analyze the plot sequence of a story(CC9-10RL3) -summarize text Explain how authors’ choices about presentation of information -characters/theme controls readers’ understandings of the central idea (CC9-10RI3) Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (CC.9-10 W.4) Lesson Essential Question How do authors build suspense in a story? Activating Strategy: Tea Party Activator – Have students in groups of three or four. Each student has a sentence or two from the story. Students take turns reading their excerpts. Then based on this small amount of information, students will create a ten word prediction as to what the story will be about. Groups will share their predictions. Or review essential (Tier III) and Academic (Tier II) vocabulary words using the word game: I have…Who has? Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy: Essential Vocabulary (Tier III): Exposition, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, Resolution, Mood/Tone, Flashback, Foreshadow, Irony, Biography Academic Vocabulary (Tier II): Prospects, Instinctive, Incessantly, Affairs, Hesitatingly, Composed, Consulted I Have …Who has… The student who has the card that states "I have the first card" reads that statement and then the "Who has...". The student who has the answer to the "Who has..." reads "I have..." and then their "Who has...". This continues till the last student reads "I have..." and then "The end." You can make it shorter or loner depending on if you want each student in your class to have a card. I have an average of 32 students in a class so I shot for half to have a card. I will time each class to see which class can finish in the least amount of time. This game typically takes about 2-5 minutes depending on the vocabulary. I will start a class with this and then end it with this as well to see how much time each class can shave off their first time. It is also great to use with known vocabulary objectives. Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Students will listen to “The Necklace” until they hear that Madame Loisel has lost the diamond necklace (10M). During the reading students will highlight phrases that detail the exposition, rising action and climax as well as words that describe the mood. Students will form groups of two and they will be asked to brainstorm together and predict the rest of the story’s plot (2-5m). Each group will be asked to write their predictions on an index card and present them before the class (2-5m). Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: Write a $2.00 summary (20 Graphic Organizer: DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT words) explaining the exposition, rising action, and climax. Learning Activity 2: Students will come back together and listen to the rest of the story (5m). Students will highlight phrases that detail the falling action and the resolution. A brief class conversation will discuss the predictions in comparison to the actual ending (2-5m). Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: With a partner, use the words from the word-splash to create a plot summary. Share summaries with another group. Learning Activity 3: Students will review the three types of irony as a class. Video: http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/types-of-irony-examplesdefinitions.html#lesson Students will be given three cards with verbal, situational and dramatic written on them. Then students will be read (and shown) an example of irony. Students hold up the card that depicts the type of irony the teacher is describing. Teacher calls on students to explain their choice (10m). More examples of irony: http://www.nubuk.com/literature/irony.pdf http://betterlesson.com/lesson/7268/short-story-lesson-5-irony-and-thenecklace#http://betterlesson.com/document/35060/3-types-of-irony Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Students work in pairs to complete graphic organizer. Students find an example of each type of irony from the story and place it in the appropriate category. Share findings with the class. Assignment: Students will read short biography of author Maupassant and complete compare/contrast graphic organizer depicting the similarities and differences between the literary piece – “The Necklace” and the Informational piece – Maupassant Biography. Students will complete a quiz (five questions) on the short story “The Necklace”. See assessment below for appropriate questions. Summarizing Strategy: Students will answer the essential question: “How do authors build suspense in the story?” Students will describe answer using the constructed response rubric. Students needing scaffolds may use the R.A.R.E. or R.A.C.E.R. format (Restate the Question, Answer the Question, Reasons/Support for your answer, Examples, Elaborate or End). Resources: Texts: http://old.sandi.net/depts/literacy/diagnostic_assessments/8.pdf (Text & lesson assessment) http://betterlesson.com/lesson/7268/short-story-lesson-5-irony-and-the-necklace# Additional resources to build background knowledge: http://gallery.sjsu.edu/Paris/social_classes/upper/index.html DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT WORD SPLASH “THE NECKLACE’ Use the words below to create a summary for the story “The Necklace”. Please make sure that you use the plot elements to summarize story. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “THE NECKLACE” (Vocabulary Story Map) Characters: Mathilde, who believes there is nothing more humiliating than to look poor among women who are rich. She suffered ceaselessly from the ugliness of her curtains. M. Loisel, who gives his wife 400 francs for a ball gown. Setting: The vestibule of the palace The ministerial ball A tented garret Problem/Conflict: Mathilde loses a borrowed diamond necklace and is sick with chagrin and anguish. M. Loisel borrows money and accepts ruinous obligations. They are impoverished by the debt. Resolution: M. and Me. Pay the accumulations of debt and interest for years. After the debt is paid, Mathilde sees the friend from whom she borrowed the necklace and finds out it was only paste. Big Idea/Theme: Putting on airs, humiliation, egotism, arrogance, conceit, vanity, disdain, haughtiness, destitute, indigent, irony, false pride, image, deprivation, poverty, calamity, compromised, luxuries Examples of Irony: DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT There are three types of irony you have learned. Give one example of each type of irony from the book to show your understanding of the use of ironies. Clearly indicate the type and the example together as shown below: Verbal irony: When Mary entered the kitchen after returning from the grocery and remarked: “Patrick!” she called. “How are you darling?”. Mary knew that Patrick was dead, and yet treated him as if he were alive. Others can comment whether the example has been rightly identified. Just to recap. There are three types of irony. They are verbal, dramatic and situational. Verbal irony is the contrast between what is said and what is meant. Most sarcastic comments are ironic. For example, when someone bungles in a quiz, and you say to that person, “You are really great!”. Dramatic irony is the contrast between what the character thinks or says and what we (the reader, viewer, audience) know. For example, when Jack Noonan, the police detective in “Lamb to the Slaughter”, said, “Get the weapon, and you’ve got the man.” The reader knows which weapon was used in the murder of Patrick Maloney and who the killer was but not Jack. Therein lies the irony. Situational irony is the contrast between what actually happens and what is expected. For example, when Mary cried hysterically on Jack Noonan’s arms as they arrived to investigate the murder of Patrick Maloney. Mary is expected to cry over the death of her husband who has just been murdered. She does cry but only because she wants to cover up her crime over the murder of her own husband (this is what actually happens). DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Name _______________________________ Irony Notes Three types of irony Verbal Irony Verbal Dramatic Situational This is the contrast between what is said and what is meant. Most sarcastic comments are ironic. For instance, the person who says, "Nice going, Einstein," isn't really paying anyone a compliment. Dramatic Irony This is the contrast between what the character thinks to be true and what we (the reader) know to be true. Sometimes as we read we are placed in the position of knowing more than what one character knows. Because we know something the character does not, we read to discover how the character will react when he or she learns the truth of the situation. Think soap operas! Situational Irony It's when you know the boogeyman is hiding in the attic, but the hero of the movie doesn't know that. You want him to get a clue and stay away from the attic. "Don't open that door! Get out of the house!" The irony is that the hero thinks he is safe, when you know he's in danger. There is that element of contrast again. It is the contrast between what happens and what was expected. Irony of situation is often humorous, such as when a prank backfires on the prankster. It's the equivalent of a person spraying shaving cream in his own face when he was trying to spray his best friend. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I, Unit II, Lesson 4 Learning Goals for Standards this Lesson CC9-10RL2: Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC9-10RL3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC9-10RI2: Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10SL1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. Students Will Know Students Will Be Able To -details Examine literary devices used to convey the theme of a story(CC9-10RL2) -main idea Evaluate the details that support the theme (CC9-10RL2) -theme Explain what specific lines of dialog reveal about a character (CC9-10RL3) -dialog -conflict -biography Lesson Essential Question: Why is it important to understand the themes and details within a text? Activating Strategy: Students will complete “Think, Pair, Share” activity answering the following questions: “What do you think of when you hear the word - robot?” Share your ideas with a partner. Add your partner’s ideas to your list. Answer the next question on your chart: “What examples of robots in literature, movies, television or current events are you familiar with?” Explain brainstorming ideas to a peer. Share ideas with the class. Students will review vocabulary words with a game of “I have…Who has?” View video clip to build background knowledge on robotic advances. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tJf-dpaidYY Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy: Essential Vocabulary (Tier III): Main Idea, Theme, Details, Biographical, Conflict, Man vs. Society, Man vs. Nature, Man vs. Self Academic Vocabulary (Tier II): Process, Analyze, Complexity, Reorganize, Responsibility, Existence, Acute Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Discuss parts of a biography (Date and place of birth and death, Family information, Lifetime accomplishments, Major events of life Effects/impact on society, historical significance). Label parts on sample biography. Students will read a short biographical selection about the author of “Robot Dreams”, Isaac Asimov with a partner. As students read they will make a list of author’s life experiences that may have helped him write about robots. Students will share their lists with the class. Graphic Organizer: Cornell Notes DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: Write an acrostic summary of the biography using the subject’s name: Isaac Asimov. Learning Activity 2: Teacher will introduce the PowerPoint on conflict/theme and allow students to take Cornell Notes on the various types of conflict. Teacher will have students use “Quiz, Quiz, Trade - to review Cornell Notes taken. Students will practice their understanding of the concept by matching conflict examples to the stories read and justify their reasoning. EX: (“The Monkey’s Paw” (conflict of man vs. fate –where Mr. White tries to control fate) and “The Necklace” (man vs. self –she is vain and selfish which leads to her downfall)). Students will read “Robot Dreams” with a partner using the PALS process. Students will highlight phrases that describe how robots are used in the story and look for the conflict (humans vs. machines). Students will list any questions they have about the story in their Cornell Note-Taking Organizer. Students will pair up with partner and try to answer some of the questions. Students will then break up into new partnerships and practice answering the questions on their note-taking organizer. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: Somebody Wanted But So: Helps students with plot, conflict and resolution, as well as character motivation. Somebody (character) Wanted (goal, motivation) But (Conflict) So (resolution). Example: Harriet Tubman wanted to lead people to freedom, but the slave owners chased the runaways so abolition sympathizers created the Underground Railroad to help them escape. Learning Activity 3: Review the extended thinking lesson on compare/contrast. Students will complete graphic organizer to compare and contrast the characteristics of robots and humans. Next students will review a diagram with a partner and agree on the similarities and differences. Finally, class will create a group comparison using chart paper. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Students will complete the following R.A.F.T: Role-Newspaper Reporter, Audience-humans/robots in the future, Format-obituary, and Topic-details that led to the robot’s demise. (Other choices: R (fellow robot), A (scientists), F (letter) T (stays the same)) Assignment: Answer the following constructed response questions: -Do you think the creation of humanlike robots, like Elvex in “Robot Dreams,” would be a positive or negative development in robotics? Write a short essay expressing your opinion. Give examples from the story and/or research to support your opinion. Or Students will be divided into two groups. They will be on teams to present a debate. One team will argue that Dr. Susan Calvin’s decision to neutralize Elvex was necessary and justified. The other team will argue that Dr. Calvin’s actions were unjust and unnecessary. Each team will have one class period to craft a defense of its position, and encourage teams to consult research (via the Internet) on artificial intelligence and technology ethics to support their arguments. Moderate the debate and then invite students to vote on the winning position. Summarizing Strategy: Answer the essential question: “Why is it important to understand the themes and details within a story?” Students will describe answer using the constructed response rubric and use the R.A.R.E. or R.A.C.E.R. format if students need a scaffold (Restate the Question, Answer the Question, Reasons/Support for your answer, Examples, Elaborate or End). DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT R.A.F.T. Assignment Assessment and Feedback Rubric Assignment Traits Accuracy How correct is your information? Is it fully supported by the text and/or history? 5 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 Comments: Perspective Do you stay in role? How effective are you at performing your role and convincing audience? 5 Comments: Focus Do you stay to assigned format? Do you fully satisfy the chosen topic with numerous details and examples? 5 Comments: Mechanics Does your writing contain a minimal of mechanical errors? Does your writing contain no errors as identified in your grammar goals? 5 Comments: Benchmark How is the overall quality of your work compared with both past work and ever increasing expectations of better work? 5 Comments: GRADE: (based on levels attained for each criteria) Scoring key 25-24 = A+ 23-21 = A 20 = A19 = B+ 18-16 = B 15 = B14 = C+ 13-12 = C 11 = C10 = D 9 = D- Assessment guide 5 = Exceptional 4 = Effective 3 = Developing 2 = Emerging 1 = Not Yet DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “Robot Dreams” by Isaac Asimov “Last night I dreamed,” said LVX-1, calmly. Susan Calvin said nothing, but her lined face, old with wisdom and experience, seemed to undergo a microscopic twitch. “Did you hear that?” said Linda Rash, nervously. “It’s as I told you.” She was small, dark-haired, and young. Her right hand opened and closed, over and over. Calvin nodded. She said, quietly, “Elvex, you will not move nor speak nor hear us until I say your name again.” There was no answer. The robot sat as though it were cast out of one piece of metal, and it would stay so until it heard its name again. Calvin said, “What is your computer entry code, Dr. Rash? Or enter it yourself if that will make you more comfortable. I want to inspect the positronic brain pattern.” Linda’s hands fumbled, for a moment, at the keys. She broke the process and started again. The fine pattern appeared on the screen. Calvin said, “Your permission, please, to manipulate your computer.” Permission was granted with a speechless nod. Of course! What could Linda, a new and unproven robopsychologist, do against the Living Legend? Slowly, Susan Calvin studied the screen, moving it across and down, then up, then suddenly throwing in a key-combination so rapidly that Linda didn’t see what had been done, but the pattern displayed a new portion of itself altogether and had been enlarged. Back and forth she went, her gnarled fingers tripping over the keys. No change came over the old face. As though vast calculations were going through her head, she watched all the pattern shifts. Linda wondered. It was impossible to analyze a pattern without at least a hand-held computer, yet the Old Woman simply stared. Did she have a computer implanted in her skull? Or was it her brain which, for decades, had done nothing but devise, study, and analyze the positronic brain patterns? Did she grasp such a pattern the way Mozart grasped the notation of a symphony? Finally Calvin said, “What is it you have done, Rash?” Linda said, a little abashed, “I made use of fractal geometry.” “I gathered that. But why?” “It had never been done. I thought it would produce a brain pattern with added complexity, possibly closer to that of the human.” “Was anyone consulted? Was this all on your own?” “I did not consult. It was on my own.” Calvin’s faded eyes looked long at the young woman. “You had no right. Rash your name; rash your nature. Who are you not to ask? I myself, I, Susan Calvin, would have discussed this.” “I was afraid I would be stopped.” “You certainly would have been.” “Am I,” her voice caught, even as she strove to hold it firm, “going to be fired?” “Quite possibly,” said Calvin. “Or you might be promoted. It depends on what I think when I am through.” “Are you going to dismantle El—” She had almost said the name, which would have reactivated the robot and been one more mistake. She could not afford another mistake, if it wasn’t already too late to afford anything at all. “Are you going to dismantle the robot?” She was suddenly aware, with some shock, that the Old Woman had an electron gun in the pocket of her smock. Dr. Calvin had come prepared for just that. “We’ll see,” said Calvin. “The robot may prove too valuable to dismantle.” “But how can it dream?” DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “You’ve made a positronic brain pattern remarkably like that of a human brain. Human brains must dream to reorganize, to get rid, periodically, of knots and snarls. Perhaps so must this robot, and for the same reason. Have you asked him what he has dreamed?” “No, I sent for you as soon as he said he had dreamed. I would deal with this matter no further on my own, after that.” “Ah!” A very small smile passed over Calvin’s face. “There are limits beyond which your folly will not carry you. I am glad of that. In fact, I am relieved. And now let us together see what we can find out.” She said, sharply, “Elvex.” The robot’s head turned toward her smoothly. “Yes, Dr. Calvin?” “How do you know you have dreamed?” “It is at night, when it is dark, Dr. Calvin,” said Elvex, “and there is suddenly light, although I can see no cause for the appearance of light. I see things that have no connection with what I conceive of as reality. I hear things. I react oddly. In searching my vocabulary for words to express what was happening, I came across the word ‘dream,’ Studying its meaning I finally came to the conclusion I was dreaming.” “How did you come to have ‘dream’ in your vocabulary, I wonder.” Linda said, quickly, waving the robot silent, “I gave him a human-style vocabulary. I thought—” “You really thought,” said Calvin. “I’m amazed.” “I thought he would need the verb. You know, ‘I never dreamed that—’ Something like that.” Calvin said, “How often have you dreamed, Elvex?” “Every night, Dr. Calvin, since I have become aware of my existence.” “Ten nights,” interposed Linda, anxiously, “but Elvex only told me of it this morning.” “Why only this morning, Elvex?” “It was not until this morning, Dr. Calvin, that I was convinced that I was dreaming. Till then, I had thought there was a flaw in my positronic brain pattern, but I could not find one. Finally, I decided it was a dream.” “And what do you dream?” “I dream always very much the same dream, Dr. Calvin. Little details are different, but always it seems to me that I see a large panorama in which robots are working.” “Robots, Elvex? And human beings, also?” “I see no human beings in the dream, Dr. Calvin. Not at first. Only robots.” “What are they doing, Elvex?” “They are working, Dr. Calvin. I see some mining in the depths of the Earth, and some laboring in heat and radiation. I see some in factories and some undersea.” Calvin turned to Linda. “Elvex is only ten days old, and I’m sure he has not left the testing situation. How does he know of robots in such detail?” Linda looked in the direction of a chair as though she longed to sit down, but the Old Woman was standing and that meant Linda had to stand also. She said, faintly, “It seemed to me important that he know about robotics and its place in the world. It was my thought that he would be particularly adapted to play the part of overseer with his—his new brain.” “His fractal brain?” “Yes.” Calvin nodded and turned back to the robot. “You saw all this—undersea, and underground, and aboveground—and space, too, I imagine.” “I also saw robots working in space,” said Elvex. “It was that I saw all this, with the details forever changing as I glanced from place to place, that made me realize that what I saw was not in accord with reality and led me to the conclusion, finally, that I was dreaming.” “What else did you see, Elvex?” “I saw that all the robots were bowed down with toil and affliction, that all were weary of responsibility and care, and I wished them to rest.” Calvin said, “But the robots are not bowed down, they are not weary, they need no rest.” DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “So it is in reality, Dr. Calvin. I speak of my dream, however. In my dream, it seemed to me that robots must protect their own existence.” Calvin said, “Are you quoting the Third Law of Robotics?” “I am, Dr. Calvin.” “But you quote it in incomplete fashion. The Third Law is ‘A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.’” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. That is the Third Law in reality, but in my dream, the Law ended with the word ‘existence.’ There was no mention of the First or Second Law.” “Yet both exist, Elvex. The Second Law, which takes precedence over the Third is ‘A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.’ Because of this, robots obey orders. They do the work you see them do, and they do it readily and without trouble. They are not bowed down; they are not weary.” “So it is in reality, Dr. Calvin. I speak of my dream.” “And the First Law, Elvex, which is the most important of all, is ‘A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. In reality. In my dream, however, it seemed to me there was neither First nor Second Law, but only the Third, and the Third Law was ‘A robot must protect its own existence.’ That was the whole of the Law.” “In your dream, Elvex?” “In my dream.” Calvin said, “Elvex, you will not move nor speak nor hear us until I say your name again.” And again the robot became, to all appearances, a single inert piece of metal. Calvin turned to Linda Rash and said, “Well, what do you think, Dr. Rash?” Linda’s eyes were wide, and she could feel her heart beating madly. She said, “Dr. Calvin, I am appalled. I had no idea. It would never have occurred to me that such a thing was possible.” “No,” said Calvin, calmly. “Nor would it have occurred to me, not to anyone. You have created a robot brain capable of dreaming and by this device you have revealed a layer of thought in robotic brains that might have remained undetected, otherwise, until the danger became acute.” “But that’s impossible,” said Linda. “You can’t mean the other robots think the same.” “As we would say of a human being, not consciously. But who would have thought there was an unconscious layer beneath the obvious positronic brain paths, a layer that was not necessarily under the control of the Three Laws? What might this have brought about as robotic brains grew more and more complex—had we not been warned?” “You mean by Elvex?” “By you, Dr. Rash. You have behaved improperly, but, by doing so, you have helped us to an overwhelmingly important understanding. We shall be working with fractal brains from now on, forming them in carefully controlled fashion. You will play your part in that. You will not be penalized for what you have done, but you will henceforth work in collaboration with others. Do you understand?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. But what of Elvex?” “I’m still not certain.” Calvin removed the electron gun from her pocket and Linda started at it with fascination. One burst of its electrons at a robotic cranium and the positronic brain paths would be neutralized and enough energy would be released to fuse the robot-brain into an inert ingot. Linda said, “But surely Elvex is important to our research. He must not be destroyed.” “Must not, Dr. Rash? That will be my decision, I think. It depends entirely on how dangerous Elvex is.” She straightened up, as though determined that her own aged body was not to bow under its weight of responsibility. She said, “Elvex, do you hear me?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin,” said the robot. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT “Did your dream continue? You said earlier that human beings did not appear at first. Does that mean they appeared afterward?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. It seemed to me, in my dream, that eventually one man appeared.” “One man? Not a robot?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. And the man said, ‘Let my people go!’” “The man said that?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin.” “And when he said, ‘Let my people go,’ then by the words ‘my people’ he meant the robots?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. So it was in my dream.” “And did you know who the man was—in your dream?” “Yes, Dr. Calvin. I knew the man.” “Who was he?” And Elvex said, “I was the man.” And Susan Calvin at once raised her electron gun and fired, and Elvex was no more. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I Unit II, Lesson5 Learning Goals Standards: CC9-10RL3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop for this Lesson over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10SL1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. Students Will Know Students Will Be Able To Narrator Protagonist Antagonist Story Elements (Plot, Setting) Literary Elements (Voice) Components of an argumentative essay Steps involved in collaborative discussions Analyze complex characters throughout a text Analyze how characters advance the plot or theme Produce clear and coherent writing Participate in discussions Lesson Essential Question How does character development affect the telling of a story? Activating Strategy: Have students complete anticipation guide for “The Man at the Bridge” and share with class. Then have students pairs think about the quote below and make a prediction as to what the story will entail. Have student pairs share predictions. “People can be defeated or made helpless by situations beyond their control.” Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy Essential Vocabulary (Tier III): Protagonist, Antagonist, Narrator, Setting, Voice Academic Vocabulary (Tier II): Spectacles, Advanced, Native Create a foldable that provides a definition and example of each of the literary/story elements and then upon completing the story “The Old Man at the Bridge” have students provide an example of the terms from the story (Plot, Setting, Theme, Protagonist, Antagonist, Narrator, and Voice). Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Students will read “The Old Man at the Bridge” with a partner. Each student will take turns reading or acting as the coach. After each paragraph, student pairs will summarize content and write summary in the Cornell Notes. Students will highlight and list words on the organizer that describe the protagonist of the story (the old man). Students will also list questions they have about the story. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: Students will work individually to write one sentence describing the protagonist using the characteristics listed in their Cornell Notes. Students will share descriptions. Learning Activity 2: With a partner, students will go back through the story and highlight words Graphic Organizer: Cornell Note-Taking Organizer Text-Dependent Answers Chart DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT that could describe the narrator. These characteristics will be listed in their Cornell Notes. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: Students will work individually to write one sentence describing the narrator using the characteristics listed in their Cornell Notes. Students will share descriptions. Learning Activity 3: Student pairs will go back to the story for a third time and answer the text dependent questions below. The teacher will model the first question and how to locate evidence from text to support answers. Question: Who is crossing the bridge? Why are they traveling? Cite evidence from the text to support your answers. p. 162 Answer: “Carts, trucks, and men, women, and children were crossing it.” Soldiers helped push the carts “up the steep bank.” The people are getting out of harm’s way. They are traveling to escape warfare. The teacher may want to have each pair answer three questions and then meet with the other three pairs to complete the chart. Teams must be able to explain the reasons for their answers. Teams will then find examples from the story to match with the literary/story elements discussed during the vocabulary activity and add these to their foldables (narrator, setting, protagonist, voice, plot, and theme). Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Students are presented with a jumbled array of words from a summary of the story and the team must use these words to create a summary. Sample summary: War is happening in Spain and the civilians are asked to leave the war zone. At the side of the road, the narrator, presumably a scout meets an old man who is too tired to go any further. Because of the old man’s immobility, the scout’s “business” of crossing over the bridge to see if the enemy is getting closer is interrupted. The old man is concerned about his animals he left behind in his native San Carlos. The scout attempts to reassure him, but in spite of these reassurances and an outright request to move at the end of the story, the weary old man still does not move. The scout capitulates, recognizing that “there was nothing to do about him.” Assignment: Write an informative essay that identifies the circumstances and attitude of the narrator and the old man, and explain how these characters contribute to the theme that people can be made helpless by situations beyond their control. Teacher Instructions 1. Students identify their writing task from the prompt provided. 2. Students complete an evidence chart as a pre-writing activity. Teachers should guide students in gathering and using any relevant notes they compiled while reading and answering the text-dependent questions earlier. Some students will need a good deal of help gathering this evidence, especially when this process is new and/or the text is challenging! **Sample pre-writing activity and essay attached. 3.Once students have completed the evidence chart, they should look back at the writing prompt in order to remind themselves what kind of response they are writing (i.e. expository, analytical, argumentative) and think about the evidence they found. (Depending on the grade level, teachers may want to review students’ evidence charts in some way to ensure accuracy.) From here, students should develop a specific thesis statement. This could be done independently, with a partner, small group, or the entire class. 4. Complete rough draft and have partner review and provide three strengths and one suggestion for improvement. 5. Complete final draft. Summarizing Strategy: Students will revisit the anticipation guide and respond to the statements again. For any statements that are marked “disagree” students will write a sentence from the text that disproves the statement. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Anticipation Guide: “The Man at the Bridge” Directions: Read each statement below and make a check mark to indicate your response. Do you agree or disagree? Read the assigned text and then respond again. Have you changed your beliefs? Confirmed or changed your opinions? Be ready to discuss your thoughts. Title/Subject: Agree Disagree Statement The old man had a duty to take care of the fishing dock and make sure the boats and fishing gear were secured. The old man is without any human companions and doesn’t know anyone towards Barcelona. The old man walks until he gets to some trucks and hitches a ride to Barcelona. The Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro and away from the bridge, so the narrator believed the area to be safe. The narrator is able to convince the old man to come back to San Carlos when the fighting ceased. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Text Dependent Questions Text Dependent Question Who is crossing the bridge? Why are they traveling? Cite evidence from the text to support your answers. p. 162 Evidence-Based Answers “Carts, trucks, and men, women, and children were crossing it.” Soldiers helped push the carts “up the steep bank.” The people are getting out of harm’s way. They are traveling to escape warfare. In the first paragraph of the story, why does the He is a weary traveler, “too tired to go any old man sit there “without moving”? p. 162 further.” What is the narrator’s business? How did the The narrator’s business is to see how far the old man’s problem affect the narrator’s enemy has advanced. The narrator indicates “business”? p. 162 that he “did this and returned over the bridge.” The fact that the old man won’t move delays his responsibility to cross the bridge as regularly as he should While conversing with the old man, he constantly looks back to determine enemy advancement. He was also listening for noises that would suggest enemy contact. He looked and listened while engaging in conversation with the old man as opposed to crossing the bridge at this point. Describe the old man’s clothing. What was the The old man wore black clothes and steel old man’s occupation in San Carlos? What is rimmed glasses. The old man took care of the narrator’s initial response to the man’s animals. According to the narrator, “he did not clothing? p. 162 look like a shepherd or a herdsman” or a person who took care of animals. What was the author’s purpose in repeating This repetition builds up tension experienced by “The Old man was still there” three times in the the reader and the narrator, brought on by the story? p. 162-3 old man’s immobility and the narrator’s need to complete his job. The repetition also draws attention to the futility of the old man’s situation. What does the author mean by “that ever In this story “contact” means “enemy sighting or mysterious event called contact”? Why does the attack.” It is only a matter of time before the author state, “and the old man still sat there”? narrator hears the sounds that signal that the p. 163 enemy has been spotted or has attacked, but even with this impending and unpredictable contact, the old man has not moved. The old man’s refusal to move suggests his sense of helplessness or the futility of moving in the face of the advancing enemy. What explanation did the old man provide He was forced to leave his home because of about why he left San Carlos? What concern impending attacks by artillery. The old man is does he have about some of the animals he left concerned that the animals may not escape the DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT behind? p. 163 What does the old man mean when he states, “I am without politics”? Why does the old man mention his age? p. 163 Describe the tone in the beginning of the story and at the end of the story. How does the tone shift and what causes that shift? p. 162-4 Why does the narrator note that the old man spoke “dully, but no longer to me”? p. 164 What does the narrator mean by “There was nothing to do about him”? p.164 Characterize the narrator’s attitude toward the old man. Cite evidence from the text to support your response. p. 162-4 artillery when he “was told to leave because of the artillery.” He means that he doesn’t have political ties or affiliations. He is neutral. He mentions his age because he believes he is too old to be walking as far as he has to escape war started by politics. At the beginning of the story, the tone is one of patience and reassurance as the narrator engages the old man in conversation, assuring him that most of his animals will be fine, offering him alternative routes to leave dangerous territory, and even allowing him to rest a while. At the end of the story, however, the tone becomes urgent as the narrator tells the old man to “get up and try to walk now” because of the advancing enemy. It is even tinged with despair as we realize that the attempts made by the narrator are futile because the old man has not moved. The narrator emphasizes here that the old man ceases to talk specifically to him, for the old man is tired and sees no use in it. He instead resorts to talking to himself, still trying to understand his current situation of being displaced by war in light of the fact that he was “only taking care of animals.” The narrator meant that he could do no more to help the old man, so he gave up, and felt helpless as “the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro.” The narrator initially has concern that the old man is not moving in light of an enemy attack. The narrator gives him a way (trucks) to an alternate destination (Barcelona). He tries to assure the old man that the doves will be fine since he unlocked the cage. He also allowed the man to rest and then urged him to move. This attitude of concern later shifts to pity as he realizes that “there was nothing to do about him.” DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT What is “all the good luck that old man would “All of the good luck” was the fact that the sky ever have”? p. 164 Why might the old man need was overcast, creating a low ceiling that good luck? prevented enemy airplanes from flying. Also, some of the animals that he cared so much about, that kept him going—the cats—could take care of themselves. He might need good luck because he has not moved and the Fascists were advancing. “The Old Man at the Bridge” by Ernest Hemingway An old man with steel rimmed spectacles and very dusty clothes sat by the side of the road. There was a pontoon bridge across the river and carts, trucks, and men, women and children were crossing it. The muledrawn carts staggered up the steep bank from the bridge with soldiers helping push against the spokes of the wheels. The trucks ground up and away heading out of it all and the peasants plodded along in the ankle deep dust. But the old man sat there without moving. He was too tired to go any farther. It was my business to cross the bridge, explore the bridgehead beyond and find out to what point the enemy had advanced. I did this and returned over the bridge. There were not so many carts now and very few people on foot, but the old man was still there. "Where do you come from?" I asked him. "From San Carlos," he said, and smiled. That was his native town and so it gave him pleasure to mention it and he smiled. "I was taking care of animals," he explained. "Oh," I said, not quite understanding. "Yes," he said, "I stayed, you see, taking care of animals. I was the last one to leave the town of San Carlos." He did not look like a shepherd nor a herdsman and I looked at his black dusty clothes and his gray dusty face and his steel rimmed spectacles and said, "What animals were they?" "Various animals," he said, and shook his head. "I had to leave them." I was watching the bridge and the African looking country of the Ebro Delta and wondering how long now it would be before we would see the enemy, and listening all the while for the first noises that would signal that ever mysterious event called contact, and the old man still sat there. "What animals were they?" I asked. "There were three animals altogether," he explained. "There were two goats and a cat and then there were four pairs of pigeons." And you had to leave them?" I asked. "Yes. Because of the artillery. The captain told me to go because of the artillery." "And you have no family?" I asked, watching the far end of the bridge where a few last carts were hurrying down the slope of the bank. "No," he said, "only the animals I stated. The cat, of course, will be all right. A cat can look out for itself, but I cannot think what will become of the others." "What politics have you?" I asked. "I am without politics," he said. "I am seventy-six years old. I have come twelve kilometers now and I think now I can go no further." "This is not a good place to stop," I said. "If you can make it, there are trucks up the road where it forks for Tortosa." "I will wait a while," he said, “and then I will go. Where do the trucks go?" "Towards Barcelona," I told him. "I know no one in that direction," he said, "but thank you very much. Thank you again very much." He looked at me very blankly and tiredly, and then said, having to share his worry with someone, "The cat will be all right, I am sure. There is no need to be unquiet about the cat. But the others. Now what do you think about the others?" "Why they'll probably come through it all right." "You think so?" "Why not," I said, watching the far bank where now there were no carts. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT "But what will they do under the artillery when I was told to leave because of the artillery?" "Did you leave the dove cage unlocked?" I asked. "Yes." "Then they'll fly." "Yes, certainly they'll fly. But the others. It's better not to think about the others," he said. "If you are rested I would go," I urged. "Get up and try to walk now." "Thank you," he said and got to his feet, swayed from side to side and then sat down backwards in the dust. "I was taking care of animals," he said dully, but no longer to me. "I was only taking care of animals." There was nothing to do about him. It was Easter Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. It was a gray overcast day with a low ceiling so their planes were not up. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Evidence Quote or paraphrase Carts, trucks, and peasants are crossing the bridge “but the old man sat there without moving. He was too tired to go any further.” Page number 162 Elaboration / explanation of how this evidence supports ideas or argument This is the first time the narrator provides the reader information into the situation of the old man. Here the old man’s immobility is shown in contrast to the mobility of the “peasants,” “carts,” and “trucks” that were crossing the bridge. He is a weary traveler, and his immobility is mentioned at least two other times throughout the story. Here we see the old man’s immobility as an impediment to the narrator’s “business” and as opposed to others moving quickly to get out of reach of the advancing enemy. The narrator gives us information about the nature of his job and how quickly people were clearing out and comments that “the old man was still there.” 162 The narrator engages the old man in conversation while watching the bridge for the approaching enemy and “listening all the while for the first noises that would signal that ever mysterious event called contact,” and comments again that “the old man still sat there.” “I was taking care of the animals.” 163 The narrator becomes increasingly concerned about the old man’s immobility. The reader gets the sense that time has elapsed, and it seems to be just a matter of time before the enemy attacks or is sighted. 162; 163 The old man offers information about his occupation without being asked. This is one of the first instances in which we see the old man’s preoccupation with his animals that he “had to leave.” We also see it throughout his conversations with the narrator. To some degree, this was the old man’s “business”. The war, unfortunately, has interrupted his “business” of taking care of the animals in that he was forced to leave them. He was given no choice. The narrator offers the old man alternatives to get out of harm’s way but to no avail. The old man is too tired to move. Prior to this, he indicates that he is 76 years old, has walked 12 kilometers and does not believe he can push himself any further. This is the narrator’s attempt to resolve the old man’s concerns about his animals, although the situation with the goats "I had to leave them." “’This is not a good place to stop,’" I said. "If you can make it, there are trucks up the road where it forks for Tortosa.’” 163 Did you leave the dove cage unlocked?" I asked. "Yes." 163; 164 DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT "Then they'll fly." But the others. It's better not to think about the others," he said. At the end of the story, as the narrator urges the old man to move, the old man gets up and sits back down and comments, "I was taking care of animals," he said dully, but no longer to me. "I was only taking care of animals." “There was nothing to do about him. It was Easter Sunday and the Fascists were advancing toward the Ebro. It was a gray overcast day with a low ceiling so their planes were not up. That and the fact that cats know how to look after themselves was all the good luck that old man would ever have.” 164 164 remains unresolved. The old man’s situation—to some degree—resembles that of the goat. Much like the goat, he, too, has no natural way of getting through this impending war. This is the old man’s resignation. Even the strong urgency of the narrator cannot propel the old man to move forward. Nature has taken its course and the old man has gone as far as he could go. The narrator has reached a state of resignation. The will he had to help the old man has given way to luck. The old man, at this point, only has luck on his side. This luck is the fact the overcast day prevented enemy planes from flying and the cats knowing how to take care of themselves. Sample Essay: We like to believe that we are in control of our lives. In reality, however, we often find ourselves in situations in which we are helpless to steer the course of our lives. In “Old Man at the Bridge,” two characters are faced with the reality that they are powerless. The old man is both too physically weak to save his own life by fleeing an approaching enemy and too emotionally distraught to continue on for having to leave his family. The scout is powerless to save the life of the old man. The old man is 76 years old, has already come 12 kilometers, and can go no further. He sits in the dust on the side of the road while townspeople who are fleeing the enemy go right past him. The old man said that he was "without politics"  yet he is affected by circumstances of politics and war beyond his control. He is forced to leave the life he knows. He is immobile in his thoughts as he can't stop thinking about the animals that he was forced to abandon, and he is immobile because he physically cannot move away from the approaching enemy. The repetition of "I was taking care of animals" (162,163) shows that mentally he cannot adapt to his new circumstances. He is trapped, in the past, along with the animals that he had to abandon. That he was the "last one to leave San Carlos" (62) is another indicator of his immobility to adapt. The narrator, through questioning the old man, becomes aware that he is powerless to save the old man. By repeating the phrase "the old man still sat there" [162, 163], we see that the scout becomes increasingly impatient with the old man. The scout also continued throughout the story to watch and listen for the approaching enemy. He knew that time was running out and the old man must move to save himself. The dwindling number of peasants crossing the bridge also indicates that time is running out. As the old man said, for the last time, "I was only taking care of the animals"  when he stood, swayed, and sat back down, the scout resigned himself to the fact that he could not save the old man. He realized that it was Easter Sunday and sometimes sacrifices must be made. The old man resigned to his fate as a casualty of war. The narrator says nothing can be done for him and is death seems certain. Easter Sunday is used by the author as an ironic contrast as the day of the celebration of the resurrection will be the day another innocent victim is crucified and has made a sacrifice. It is important to see that the old man took care of three kinds of animals: the pigeons, the cat, and the goat. The peasants who are fleeing are like the birds who were given the opportunity to fly away to safety DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT when the cage was unlocked, the scout is like the cat "who knows how to take care of himself" , and the old man is like the other animals, the helpless ones left behind, and as the old man said himself, "it's better not to think about the others" . It is as if the old man is releasing the scout from his responsibility to act as the hero and same him. Both the old man and the scout were faced with circumstances that they could not control. The old man was stuck in the past and was neither physically nor mentally able to move on. This was through no fault of his own; the circumstances of his age and the war thrust him into this predicament. The scout was unable to change the circumstances of the old man but was able to save himself, realizing at the end that he had to take care of himself and leave the old man to probably die by the bridge. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT English I Unit II, Lesson 6 Learning Goals Standards: CC9-10RL3: Analyze how complex characters (e.g., those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop for this Lesson over the course of a text, interact with other characters, and advance the plot or develop the theme. CC9-10W4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (use writing rubrics to assess outcome) CC9-10SL1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9-10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. Students Will Know: Students Will Be Able To: Protagonist Analyze complex characters throughout a text Antagonist Analyze how characters advance the plot or theme Narrator Produce clear and coherent writing Static Character Participate in discussions Round/Dynamic Character Flat Character Components of an argumentative essay Steps involved in collaborative discussions Lesson Essential Question: How can experiences change people/characters? Activating Strategy: Students will view a picture of a censored letter and in pairs answer the question: “What is this letter about?” What information supports their guess? Student pairs will then answer the next question: “What would you do if this happened to your mail, email or text-messages regularly?” Key vocabulary to preview and vocabulary strategy: Essential Vocabulary (Tier II): Protagonist, Antagonist, Narrator, Static Character, Round Character, Dynamic Character Academic Vocabulary (Tier II): Confidential, Insignificant, Anxiety, Absorb, Magnify Lesson Instruction Learning Activity 1: Independently, students will read and annotate the selections from the short story “The Censors” by Luiza Valenzuela. When they annotate, encourage the students to mark passages that show very descriptive imagery, character traits, write questions beside parts they don’t understand and underline and then mark any other sentence they feel may be important. Remind students that annotating is not the underlining of the text; it is what they write in the margins to explain WHY they underlined something. On this first reading, students will mainly be reading for comprehension. Tell students: Look for irregularities, similarities, and unknowns. Irregularity: I find it peculiar the way the author used this word. Similarity: I am seeing a pattern here: in words, phrasing, or ideas. (Diction and Syntax) Unknowns: I don’t know what that means. Or I don’t know what that means in this context. Students will then partner to reread the selection “The Censors” using the Say Something process (students will take turns reading paragraphs to each other Graphic Organizer: Cornell Notes Changes in the Wind DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT and then each student will make a comment about one of the characters mentioned in the paragraph, imagery mentioned, etc. Students will list traits for each character (Juan, Mariana, mother, the government /the censors) in Cornell Notes. Then each group will write traits on chart paper and share these traits with the class. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 1: Students will write one word for each character that they feel best describes the character or group. Students will share answers with partners and then teacher will call on two or three students to share. Learning Activity 2: Teacher Students will reread the story individually and decide which characters are the protagonist, the antagonist, Static Character, Flat Character, Round Character, and Dynamic Character. Students will complete Changes in the Wind Part A independently. Then meet with their partners and discuss their findings. Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 2: Students will complete Changes in the Wind Part B independently. Then students will share answers with the class. Learning Activity 3: Student pairs will go back to the story for a third time and answer the text dependent questions below. The teacher will model the first question and how to locate evidence from text to support answers. The teacher may want to have each pair answer three questions and then meet with the other three pairs to complete the text-dependent questions. Teams must be able to explain the reasons for their answers. 1. The first paragraph reads almost like the start of a fairytale. How does this opening paragraph influence the tone and mood of the whole piece? 2. The author refers to the protagonist as both “Poor Juan” and “Juancito”. What can you infer about how the author feels towards the main character? 3. Why might happiness be considered a “disturbing sentiment”? What does this suggest about the setting? 4. Examine the types and lengths of sentences in the first paragraph. What do you notice? 5. What is the meaning of the word “irreproachable” in the second paragraph? 6. Describe the process a letter must pass through to get to its intended recipient. What images or phrases stand out to you? 7. Using the text, explain Juan’s reasons for applying to become a censor. 8. The censors are aware of people like Juan. Why do they not keep him from becoming a censor? 9. Paragraph eight begins with “Once doesn’t form a habit…”, what is the antecedent of “once”? What is the significance of this moment in the story? 10. What is happening to Juan psychologically over the next few paragraphs? Find five words in paragraphs nine through eleven that you feel best represent the changes Juan is going through. 11. Explore the irony of the story’s final paragraph. What is the author’s purpose in writing this story? What is the author trying to say about Juan, about the individual, about society? What is suggested about government, power, and censorship in the text and in the plot? Assignment: Read two of the articles on censorship and compare/contrast articles to the story “The Censor”. Needs more scaffolds. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT 12. Examine the character of Juan. How much is revealed about him in the story? What language and structure decisions made by the author directly impact the readers perception of Juan? Assessment Prompt for Learning Activity 3: Students will describe the most important thing to know about the protagonist in the story. Example: Examples Somebody Harry Potter Wants wants to learn about his parents, be happy, and make friends But So but he must protect himself from the dangers he faces at Hogwarts so he learns how to use his powers for good and to protect himself and his friends Summarizing Strategy: Students will answer the essential question: How can experiences change people/characters? Use examples from the short story “The Censors”. Students will describe answer using the constructed response rubric –if scaffolds are necessary, teacher may use the R.A.R.E. or R.A.C.E.R. format (Restate the Question, Answer the Question, Reasons/Support for your answer, Examples, Elaborate or End). Assessment Prompt #3: somebody wants but so “Juan” from The Censors = who - the individual/character = what = = complications/problems/conflict = solution/outcome DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Example of a censored document: The Censors Luisa Valenzuela Poor Juan! He was caught off guard that day and he couldn't realize that what he thought was a stroke of luck was really an accursed trick of fate. Those things happen when you're not careful, and as sure as you're hearing me one gets careless very, very often. Juancito let happiness -- an otherwise disturbing sentiment -- overwhelm him when, from a confidential source, he received Mariana's new address, now in Paris, and he knew that she hadn't forgotten him. Without thinking twice, he sat down at his desk and wrote a letter. The letter. The same one that now prevents him from concentrating on his work during the day and doesn't let him sleep when night comes (what did he put in that letter, what had stuck to that sheet of paper that he sent to Mariana?) Juan knew there wouldn't be any problem with the text, that the text is irreproachable, innocuous. But the rest? He knows that they probe the letters, sniff them, feel them, read between the lines and their insignificant punctuation, even the accidental stains. He knows that the letters pass from hand to hand through the vast censorship bureaus and that few finally pass the tests and are able to continue their journey. Usually it's a question of months, years if complications arise, a long time in which the freedom and perhaps even DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT the life of the sender and receiver are in suspense. And that's what has our Juan so deeply depressed: the idea that something could happen to Mariana, in Paris, through his fault. Mariana, of all people, who must feel so safe, so at ease there where she always dreamed of living. But he knows that the Secret Commandos of Censorship operate the world over and are granted a large discount on airline fares; therefore there's nothing to prevent them from going even to the darkest Paris quartier, kidnap Mariana and go home convinced of the nobility of their earthly mission. So you have to outsmart them, you have to do what everyone does: try to sabotage the mechanism, throw sand in the gears, that is, go to the source of the problem in order to obstruct it. That was the plan when Juan, like so many others, applied to be a censor. Not because of conviction like a few others or because he needed work like still others, no. He applied simply in order to try to intercept his own letter, not at all an original idea, but a comforting one. He was hired immediately, because more censors are needed every day and there's no time to be squeamish about references. The Directorate of Censorship was aware of the secret motive behind the desire of more than one to work in the bureau, but they were in no condition to be too strict and anyway -What for? They knew how difficult it would be for those poor innocents to find the letter they were looking for, and even if they did, what importance does a letter or two that slips though the barrier cracks compared to the others that the new censor would shoot down. That's how our Juan was able to join the Censorship Bureau of the Ministry of Communications. The building, seen from outside, had a festive air because of the smoked glass that reflected the sky, an air that was in total contrast to the austere atmosphere of its interior. And little by little Juan became accustomed to the climate of concentration which his new work required, and the knowledge that he was doing everything possible for his letter -- that is for Mariana -- assuaged his anxieties. He wasn't even worried when, the first month, he was assigned to Section K where the envelopes are opened with painstaking care to see if they contain some explosive. It's true that on the third day a letter blew a fellow-worker's hand off and disfigured his face, but the bureau chief claimed it had been mere negligence on the victim's part and Juan and the other employees could continue working as before, although with much less assurance. At quitting time another fellow worker tried to organize a strike to demand more pay for hazardous work, but Juan didn't participate and after thinking it over a while he denounced him to the authorities in order to be promoted. Once doesn't form a habit, Juan thought as he left the chief's office, and when they transferred him to Section J where they unfold the letters with infinite care to see if they contain poisonous powder, he felt that he had ascended a step and could therefore return to his healthy habit of not getting involved in external affairs. From J, thanks to his merits, he rose rapidly until reaching E, where the work became more interesting, for there begins the reading and analysis of the letters. In that Section he could even cherish hopes of coming across his own missive written to Mariana which, judging by DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT the time elapsed, should have reached this level after a very long procession through the other departments. Little by little there were days when his work so absorbed him that the noble mission that brought him to the Bureau became momentarily blurred. Days of crossing out long paragraphs with red ink, of tossing many letters into the Condemned Basket. Days of horror at the subtle and scheming ways people found to transmit subversive messages. Days of intuition so sharp that behind a simple "the weather is unsettled" or "prices are sky high", he detected the vacillating hand of someone whose secret intention was to overthrow the Government. So much zeal brought him rapid promotion. We don't know if it made him very happy. In Section B the amount of letters which reached him daily was minimal--very few cleared the previous hurdles--but as compensation he had to read them often, put them under the magnifying glass, look for microdots with the electronic microscope and so tune his sense of smell that upon returning home at night he was exhausted. He barely managed to heat up some soup, eat some fruit and fall asleep with the satisfaction of having complied with his duty. Only his Sainted Mother worried about him, and tried without success to guide him back onto the right path. She'd say, although it wasn't necessarily true: Lola called, says she's with the girls in the café, that they miss you, are expecting you. But Juan didn't want to have anything to do with nonessentials: any distractions could cause him to lose the astuteness of his senses and he needed them alert, sharp, attentive, tuned, in order to be the perfect censor and detect deceit. His was a true patriotic labor. Self-denying and sublime. His Basket of Condemned Letters soon became the best nourished but also the most subtle in the whole Censorship Bureau. He was at the point of feeling proud of himself, he was at the point of knowing that he had finally found his true path, when his own letter to Mariana reached his hands. Naturally he condemned it without remorse. And just as naturally he couldn't prevent them from executing him at dawn, one more victim of his devotion to work. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Changes in the Wind Assessment Prompt 1. After reading the short story “The Censors”, I have decided that: A. __________________ is the protagonist because this character_____________________________________________. B. __________________is the antagonist because this character______________________________________________. C. ____________________is/are the static character(s because_______________________________________________. D. ____________________is/are the flat character(s because_______________________________________________. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT E. ____________________is/are the dynamic/round character(s because_______________________________________________. 2. After discussing my choices with my peers, I have decided that: F. __________________ is the protagonist because this character_____________________________________________. G. __________________is the antagonist because this character______________________________________________. H. ____________________is/are the static character(s because_______________________________________________. I. ____________________is/are the flat character(s because_______________________________________________. J. ____________________is/are the round/dynamic character(s because_______________________________________________. 3. I changed/kept my answers because___________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________. Another variation of this instructional chunk/assessment prompt: You have 30 minutes for steps 1-5. 1. Choose a Leader and a Timer. 2. Define the terms in the chart below. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT 3. Discuss the short story in regards to its characters. 4. Give examples of each type of character from the story. Be sure to describe why this character is this type of character. 5. Prepare a three-minute presentation in which all members participate. 6. Evaluate your own team’s participation and other teams’ presentations. Definition Examples & Descriptions Protagonist: Antagonist: Flat character: Round character: Static character: Dynamic character: Characters PowerPoint: DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT The Great Firewall: China's Web Users Battle Censorship By Austin Ramzy / Beijing Tuesday, Apr. 13, 2010 After he was listed on this year's TIME 100 poll to determine the world's most influential people, Chinese author Han Han wrote a blog post announcing, "Other Chinese nominees include sensitive word, sensitive word and sensitive word." It was something of an inside joke, but one that Han's huge fan base would immediately get. "Sensitive word" was a jab at China's Web censors' habit of sometimes blocking even commonplace names from display in blog posts and Web searches. Within days, his post had generated more than 20,000 comments, most in support of the writer, a few in opposition and many grumbling about the state of online freedom in China. Critics of China's censorship regime have often predicted that information will inevitably circumvent efforts to restrict it. But so far China has managed, through a variety of means, to restrict the discussion of topics the government finds objectionable, such as independence drives in the regions of Tibet and Xinjiang and the banned religious movement Falun Gong. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT For the tens of thousands of censors employed by the government, blocking access to restricted information both at home and abroad is an ongoing struggle. Their work is mirrored by employees of large Web portals who ensure content conforms with official directives. With what is called the "Great Firewall of China," authorities block access to overseas Web pages deemed objectionable and shutter domestic sites that repeatedly stray into restricted territory. Search engines are prevented from linking to sensitive content. Mainland media, which face a host of regulations that limit how they can report the news, are often forced to take down controversial stories that have been posted online. (See pictures of Chinese mourning the loss of Google.) Despite those restrictions, the Internet in China roils with debate over current events. China now has an estimated 384 million Internet users, more than the total population of the U.S. That size, combined with the growing popularity of interactive applications that allow users to generate their own content, has placed great strain on censors' ability to restrict the flow of sensitive information. Often news happens and discussion spreads widely before censors have a chance to decide how to manage the subject. "In this war, the censor is obviously not winning," says Xiao Qiang, the director of the China Internet Project at the University of California, Berkeley. "In the interactive space, users are winning by numbers." Perhaps the greatest threat China's censorship regime now faces is that it can't seem to stop debate over censorship itself. Since Google declared in January that it planned to stop censoring its Web search results in China, the state of online censorship has come under increasing scrutiny. The Chinese government has sought to portray its conflict with the Internet giant as a commercial dispute and a simple matter of law. But to a significant number of Chinese Web users, the extensive Web restrictions increasingly chafe. So they make use of widely available proxies and virtual private networks to fanqiang, or "climb the wall," for access to everything from politics to porn. Censors can further restrict access to overseas sites by slowing or blocking the networks used to bypass the Great Firewall, says Xiao, but they are reluctant to do so for fear of interfering with commercial applications, like secure communications between corporate offices. (See who will profit when Google exits China.) In 2006 Jason Ng, a blogger from Guangdong province in south China, began writing about how to circumvent censorship in China after he read about the government's block on Wikipedia, the usergenerated online encyclopedia. He started by posting technical tips and essays on various bulletin boards and his own blog on sina.com, a major Chinese Web portal. "During that time, many of my posts were either quietly deleted or unable to get published on my blog for no reason," he says. Pent-up frustration led Ng to create his own website, kenengba.com, in April 2007. The site — its name means maybe — gained attention last year among Chinese Web users who opposed a DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT government plan to require the installation of software on new computers that would block some websites. The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology's proposal was promoted as a way to restrict pornography, but most of the targeted websites were political. In August 2009 the agency dropped the requirement to install the software, known as the Green Dam Youth Escort, after widespread protest from Web users and foreign computer makers. Since then, Ng says, he has received phone calls and e-mails from government officials ordering him to remove articles that teach users how to circumvent Web restrictions, or else his website would be shut down by authorities. This has left him with little choice, he says, but to switch to an overseas server. In late March, when Google began redirecting Chinese search traffic to an uncensored site based in Hong Kong, authorities blocked Ng's site. His daily traffic dropped from more than 20,000 hits to 6,000 overnight, but many mainland users still climb the Great Firewall to view his site. The phenomenon is happening in much larger numbers on Twitter, where thousands of Chinese users post information about current events in China despite the site's being blocked by authorities. When the activist lawyer Gao Zhisheng reappeared in March after disappearing in police custody more than a year ago, the news was first revealed on Twitter and then spread to the mainstream press. Ai Weiwei, a Chinese artist who has organized an investigation into the deaths of children whose schools collapsed in the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, has been active on Twitter over the past year; he now has 33,000 followers. Recently he began posting birthday memorials for students who died in the quake. In a recent interview with CNN, Ai, who helped design the "Bird's Nest" Olympic stadium in Beijing, predicted that social media would one day overcome China's censorship regime. Because mainland users have to climb the Great Firewall to access Twitter, they generally share an interest in issues of free speech, says Xiao. They discuss news in the unfiltered medium of Twitter and then repost information on mainland blogs and Twitter-like microblogging services. "It is not a fluke," he says. "It's a pattern. The Chinese censors look at this space with great focus and are trying to figure out what to do with it. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1981566,00.html#ixzz1kKeEEeGR In North Korea, the Internet is only for a few - Technology & Media - International Herald Tribune By Tom Zeller Jr.Published: Sunday, October 22, 2006 NEW YORK — The tragically backward, sometimes absurdist hallmarks of the People's Democratic Republic of Korea and in DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT particular its leader, Kim Jong Il, are well known. There's Kim's Elton John eyeglasses and cotton-candy hairdo, for instance. A newer, more dangerous sort of North Korean eccentricity registered around 4.0 on the Richter scale earlier this month - a nuclear weapon test broadcast on state-controlled television. But the stark realities of life in North Korea were perhaps most evident in a simple satellite image over the shoulder of the U.S. defense secretary, Donald Rumsfeld, during a briefing Oct. 11. The image showed the two Koreas, North and South, photographed at night. The South was illuminated from coast to coast, suggesting that not just lights, but the other, arguably more bedrock utility of the modern age - information - was pulsating through the population. The North was black. This is an impoverished country where televisions and radios are hard- wired to receive only government-controlled frequencies. Cellphones were banned in 2004. In May, the New York- based Committee to Protect Journalists ranked North Korea No.1 - over Burma, Syria and Uzbekistan - on its list of the 10 most-censored countries. That would seem to leave the question of Internet access in North Korea moot. At a time when much of the world takes for granted a fat and growing network of digitized human knowledge, art, history, thought and debate, it is easy to forget just how much is being denied the people who live under the veil of darkness revealed in that satellite photograph. Indeed, while other restrictive regimes have sought ways to limit the Internet - through filters and blocks and threats - North Korea has chosen to stay wholly off the grid. Julien Pain, head of the Internet desk of the Paris-based group Reporters Without Borders, which tracks Internet censorship, put it more bluntly. "It is by far the worst Internet black hole," he said. That is not to say that North Korean officials are not aware of the Internet. As early as 2000, at the end of a visit to Pyongyang, then-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asked Kim to "pick up the telephone any time," to which the North Korean leader replied, "Please give me your e-mail address" - signaling to everyone that at least he, if not the average North Korean, was cybersavvy. These days, the designated North Korean domain suffix - ".kp" - remains dormant, but several "official" North Korean sites can be found delivering sweet nothings about the country and its leader to the global conversation (an example: www.kcckp.net/en/) - although these are typically hosted on servers in China or Japan. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Kim, embracing the concept of "distance learning," has established the Kim Il Sung Open University Web site, www.ournation-school.com, aimed at educating the world on North Korea's philosophy of "juche" or self-reliance. But to the extent that students and researchers at universities and a few others have access to computers, these are linked only to each other - that is, to a nationwide, closely monitored intranet according to the OpenNet Initiative, a human rights project linking researchers from the University of Toronto, Harvard Law School and Cambridge and Oxford Universities in Britain. A handful of the elite have access to the wider Web, via a pipeline through China, but this is almost certainly filtered, monitored and logged. Some small "information technology stores" - crude cybercafés - have also opened. But these, too, connect only to the country's closed network, and, according to The Daily NK, a pro-democracy news site based in South Korea, "classes" can cost more than six months of wages for the average North Korean. A generator is also kept on hand, for when the power inevitably goes out. "It's one thing for authoritarian regimes like China to try to blend the economic catalyst of access to the Internet with controls designed to sand off the rough edges, forcing citizens to make a little extra effort to see or create sensitive content," said Jonathan Zittrain, a professor of Internet governance and regulation at Oxford University. The problem is much more vexing for North Korea, Zittrain said, because its "comprehensive official fantasy worldview" must remain inviolate. "In such a situation, any information leakage from the outside world could be devastating," he said, "and Internet access for the citizenry would have to be so controlled as to be useless. It couldn't even resemble the Internet as we know it." But how long can North Korea's leadership keep the country in the dark? Writing in the International Herald Tribune last year, Rebecca McKinnon, a research fellow at the Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard, suggested that North Korea's ban on cellphones was being breached on the black market along the Chinese border. And as more cellphones there become Web-enabled, she suggested, a growing number of North Koreans, in addition to talking to family in the South, will be quietly raising digital periscopes. Of course, there are no polls indicating whether the average North Korean would prefer nuclear arms or Internet access, but given Kim's interest in weapons, it probably would not matter. "No doubt it's harder to make nuclear warheads than to set up an Internet network," Pain said. "It's all a question of priority." DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Russia Cracks Down on Political Art On June 11, Alexander Shchednov, known in Russia's art circles as Shurik, was hanging up a collage outside the town hall in the southwestern city of Voronezh. The image showed the face of a coy-looking Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin superimposed over the head of a woman in an evening dress, with the slogan, "Oh I don't know ... a third presidential [term] ... it's too much, on the other hand [three is a charm]." But Shchednov never got the chance to display his new work. Before he could hang the collage, he was arrested, becoming the latest in a string of artists to fall victim to the heavy hand of Russian censorship. Speaking to the opposition website Kasparov.ru, Elena Dudukina of the Voronezh human-rights protection group Voronezh-Chernozemye said Shchednov was asked to give the police a $95 bribe to avoid arrest. When he refused, he was detained overnight and, according to Dudukina, beaten while in custody; Voronezh police say an investigation into the allegation is under way. A trial was scheduled for June 15, with Shchednov charged with "uncensored swearing in a public place." But the artist never showed up in court, so the hearing has been postponed. (See pictures of the fashions of Russian Czars.) Shchednov is one of a growing number of artists in Russia who have been accused of breaching censorship conventions and insulting authority. There is no specific law that explicitly forbids antiEstablishment artworks, but law-enforcement figures can easily find loopholes that they can use to detain artists. They are helped by legislation passed in 2002 that forbids the expression of extremism. The law is intended to combat far-right nationalism, but many artists have been caught in its wide net. The most high-profile case is that of Andrey Erofeyev, former head of contemporary art at Moscow's State Tretyakov Gallery. In 2008 he was indicted and charged with inciting religious hatred after putting on an exhibition a year earlier at the Andrey Sakharov Museum in Moscow called "Forbidden Art 2006." The paintings depicted in the show were considered by authorities to be insulting to the Orthodox DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Church — one of the works showed a crucified Lenin, another portrayed Mickey Mouse as Jesus. Erofeyev was fired from his job at the Tretyakov in 2008, and his trial is ongoing. "Artists should not be prosecuted just because someone doesn't like what they do," says Friederike Behr, a researcher at Amnesty International in Russia. He adds that the antiextremism law itself is not the problem: "There is a good reason for that law to exist. It's just the interpretation and implementation of the law [which] is worrying." Artyom Loskutov, a video artist based in Novosibirsk, Siberia, spent 26 days in prison before he was released on June 10. He had been arrested after helping to organize an art gathering called Monstratsia, which was held in Novosibirsk on May 1. The liberal weekly the New Times reported that 800 people had attended, some of them brandishing political posters with slogans like "Who is in charge?" On May 15, Loskutov received a call from the police asking him to come in for a chat. But having already spoken to authorities two weeks earlier about his involvement in Monstratsia, with no consequences, he declined. Hours later, he was detained by plainclothes police, who then claimed to have found 11 grams of marijuana in his belongings. (Read "The Russians Are Coming.") "The marijuana wasn't mine," Loskutov, whose art is nonpolitical, tells TIME. "Even if I was a regular drug taker, I knew the police wanted to see me that day. I would not have risked having drugs with me." Loskutov was released, but his trial is set for later this summer. The artist thinks it will be a litmus test for others. "I think the result will say a lot about the state of art in Russia," he says. "If I am found innocent, it will prove that there is a certain freedom to express oneself. If I am found guilty, it means we are approaching a critical time for art and artists in this country." Artists hoping to avoid becoming a target of Russia's censorship laws may find themselves forced to take a page out of Ilya Glazunov's book. Last week, Putin visited Glazunov, one of Russia's most famous painters, at his studio on the artist's 79th birthday. The Prime Minister paused in front of a painting of a knight, Prince Oleg with Igor, which Glazunov had completed in 1973. Then he offered his critique that the sword in the painting was too short. "It would only be good for cutting a sausage," Putin said. (See pictures of Putin's Patriotic Youth Camp.) Had this not been Russia, Glazunov might have defended his work. Instead, he complemented Putin on his eye for detail and said he would correct the mistake. Under the current climate, he was probably right to — when it comes to Russian art, going up against the authorities has its consequences. Read more: http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1905202,00.html#ixzz1kKdA1X99 DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT At Least 173 Dead in Libya’s Crackdown on Protest Libyan security forces have opened fire again on anti-government protesters, while a U.S.-based rights group has raised Libya’s death toll to 173 from five days of unrest. Witnesses Sunday in Libya’s second-largest city, Benghazi, said the security forces shot at mourners attending a funeral for protesters killed a day before. Human Rights Watch issued its higher death toll report Sunday, as sources at hospitals in Benghazi said the violence there has killed at least 200 people and wounded hundreds of others. Protesters demonstrate against Libyan Leader Moammar Gadhafi, shown on placard at left, in the Mediterranean port city of Alexandria in Egypt, February 20, 2011 activists. Libyan security forces also fired Saturday on crowds gathering for the funerals of DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Arab media reports said at least 15 protesters were killed in Saturday’s shootings, which some Benghazi residents described as a “massacre.” Witnesses said snipers opened fire after the mourners tried to storm a military building. The demonstrations have been largely confined to Benghazi and other cities in eastern Libya since they began last Tuesday. They represent an unprecedented challenge to the four-decade rule of Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, whose supporters have staged small rallies in the capital, Tripoli, in recent days. There was no independent confirmation of Libyan witnesses’ accounts of the violence, as the government has barred local and foreign journalists from covering the unrest. The U.S. State Department has issued a warning to Americans to stay away from eastern Libya, saying more demonstrations and violent incidents are possible in the coming days. It also said even peaceful protests can quickly become unruly and foreigners “could become a target of harassment or worse.” Libyan authorities also cut off Internet services in the country Saturday, denying cyber activists a key tool to mobilize demonstrators. Gadhafi has tried to defuse the protests by doubling the salaries of state employees and releasing 110 suspected Islamic militants. He took power in a 1969 coup and has built his rule on a cult of personality and a network of family and tribal alliances. China, Cuba, Other Authoritarian Regimes Censor News From Iran By Ariana Eunjung Cha Washington Post Foreign Service Saturday, June 27, 2009 BEIJING -- Out of fear that history might repeat itself, the authoritarian governments of China, Cuba and Burma have been selectively censoring the news this month of Iranian crowds braving government militias on the streets of Tehran to demand democratic reforms. Between 1988 and 1990, amid a lesser global economic slump, prodemocracy protests that appeared to inspire and energize one another broke out in Eastern Europe, Burma, China and elsewhere. Not all evolved into full-fledged revolutions, but communist regimes fell in a broad swath of countries, and the global balance of power shifted. A similar infectiousness has shown up in subtle acts of defiance by democracy advocates around the world this week. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT In China, political commentators tinted their blogs and Twitters green to show their support for Iranians disputing President Ahmoud Ahmadinejad's reelection. The deaths of at least 20 people in violent clashes in Tehran have drawn comparisons online to "June 4," the date of the Tiananmen Square crackdown in Beijing in 1989. And a pointed joke about how Iranians are luckier than Chinese because sham elections are better than no elections made the rounds on the country's vast network of Internet bulletin boards. "The Iranian people face the same problems as us: news censorship and no freedom to have their own voices," 28-year-old blogger Zhou Shuguang said in a telephone interview from the inland province of Hunan. Zhou said he and several friends were among those who had colored their online pictures green, the signature color of the Iranian opposition. In Cuba, President Raúl Castro's government has imposed a complete blackout of news surrounding the Iranian elections. But word of developments is trickling through, anyway. Havana-based blogger Yoani Sánchez, 33, who e-mails friends outside Cuba to get her entries posted online, said the Iranian protests -- in particular, the reportedly widespread use of Twitter, Facebook and cellphones -- have served as "a lesson for Cuban bloggers." "Seeing those young Iranians use all the technology to denounce the injustice, I notice everything that we lack to support those who maintain blogs from the island," Sánchez wrote. "The acid test of our incipient virtual community has not yet arrived, but maybe it will surprise us tomorrow." "Today it's you," she told the Iranian protesters in one posting. "Tomorrow it could well be us." In Burma, the junta's mouthpiece, the New Light of Myanmar, has drowned out news from Tehran with articles on bombings in Iraq and Afghanistan. But some of the nearly 200 journals published privately in Rangoon and Mandalay have seized on the topic as a way to pass subversive messages to readers. "What we, the private media, are trying to do was to put in as much stories and pixs of what's going on in Teheran in our papers. So far we were successful," the editor of a Rangoon-based weekly publication said in an e-mail. "The upcoming paper of mine . . . will carry, albeit if it's not censored, news stories of the events in Teheran and a feature on 'Elections and Democracy,' trying to draw some parallels between the one in Iran and the upcoming one here," a reference to elections, scheduled for 2010, that many critics dismiss as a sham. Unlike in Iran, however, the experience of past failed protests has yielded a measure of pragmatism in Burma. Overtly political opposition groups, such as Generation Wave, and numerous apolitical networks have in recent months focused on a more evolutionary strategy of change, reaching out in particular to Burma's rural masses. "We cannot go directly to our goal," said a graphic designer who cofounded a group that teaches social management and governance in Rangoon and remote towns under the cover of English classes. Moe Thway, founder of Generation Wave, said Iran's citizens do not appear to be as depressed or despairing as Burma's. Even the most DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT hard-bitten Burmese activists see little hope in taking to the streets for now. "About Iran, I can't say whether their current movement will change the political trend or not," he said. "Iran and our Burma are still different." In Venezuela, a South American country that is increasingly polarized, protests against President Hugo Chávez's administration are common. Juan Mejía, 22, said he found the protests in Iran stirring, partly because he felt that opponents of the government in Tehran want the same thing as protesters in Caracas. The fact that people have gone out onto the street, that they demand their rights be respected, means to us that they felt there was no liberty and that they want a different country," said Mejía, a student leader who opposes Chávez. "We believe that if the people of the world raise their voices loudly enough -- in Iran, as we do it here in Venezuela, and hopefully one day in Cuba -- then surely we will have a better world." Venezuela, as opposed to countries such as Cuba and China, holds frequent elections, and dissent remains a part of the political discourse. But in a decade in power, Chávez has taken control of the Congress, the courts and the state oil company, and his opponents charge that he is a dictator in the making. China, Syria, Censorship Hussain Abdul-Hussain While Palestinian-Israeli peace talks and Iran's nuclear program won the spotlight at the Arab League Summit, held in Libya over the weekend, Arab leaders endorsed a low profile -- yet dangerous -document. DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT Proposed by Syrian President Bashar Assad to presumably "manage Arab differences," the first article of the document stipulated that Arab regimes "should not launch any kind of media campaigns, against each other, for [such campaigns] obstruct the management of differences, efforts aimed at compromise, and reinstatement of normalcy [in bilateral relations]." The Syrian Assad regime, it seems, perceives media as a tool at the disposal of the state, rather than the "fourth estate" whose job is to participate in the checks and balances inside individual states, or across countries. Syria's proposal of this gentlemen's agreement to censor free press comes at the time the world witnesses a surge in police state behavior. China, the planet's most prosperous authoritarian regime, has been trying to bully the giant search engine Google. However, as the world focuses on Google's freedom fight against China's censorship, the Syrian Initiative wins the unanimous approval of 22 Arab states, and receives minimal media coverage. After all, Damascus has blocked Syrian access to Facebook, YouTube, most search engines, and a dozen other social and political URLs, long before Beijing decided to move against Google. Police states, like China and Syria, are more sensitive to freedom of the press than many in the West might think. The free world, for its part, should not remain silent against Chinese and Syrian violations of such basic human rights. A common wisdom has emerged in the West, especially among liberal and left wing circles, that the world should leave regimes and their peoples alone. Just like many Westerners sympathized with the native Navi tribe living in a tree in the hit sci-fi movie Avatar, against the White Man's military-industrial resource-hungry complex, these same Westerners sometimes argue that the West should stay out of the business of countries like China and Syria. Such argument is wrong. There is no nation on earth that enjoys living inside a tree, or prefers state censorship over freedom. All nations seek modern technology and freedom. While communicating with trees, like in Avatar, might be a domestic tradition that should be respected, cultural heritage should never be understood as the antithesis of innovation, human rights, or freedom. Police states like China and Syria have tried to hide behind cultural sensitivities and label basic human rights as Western innovations unfit for their populations. This is deception. Meanwhile globalization has been both positive and negative when it comes to police states. On the one hand, autocratic regimes are finding it extremely harder to control the flow of the news and online social networking into their once tightly iron-curtained countries. On the other hand, Chinese and Syrian efforts of censorship have expanded. While Beijing is fighting the world famous Google, Syria took its efforts to like-minded regional leaders, at the Arab Summit, and got the nod for it. The good news is that the more China tries to censor Google, the more its authoritarian behavior is highlighted in world headlines. The bad news is that, unlike China or even Iran, countries like Syria are tightening their grip and getting away with it, or rather receiving world praise for a presumed effort to achieve peace with Israel, a speculation that has been in the news for the past half century, but has never been realized. The Syrian censorship document received little to no media attention in the Arab Middle East, where a new satellite channel opens every week, or in the West. Arab satellite channels, such as Qatari Al-Jazeera that claims to be a champion of human rights and scrutinizes every American behavior to propagandize against it, did not make a big deal out of the Syrian censorship document. To understand why the always-agitated Al-Jazeera remained silent on the Syrian Arab censorship document, one should always remember the Syrian perception of how regimes "should not launch any kind of media campaigns against each other." DSCYF EDUCATION UNIT The Syrian understanding of media outlets, whether satellite TVs, radios or newspapers, as regime-owned tools perfectly fits Al-Jazeera, which is owned by Qatar's despot. And since Assad and the Qatari autocrat have been allies for some years, Al-Jazeera found nothing wrong with turning a blind eye toward a Syrian initiative that aims at censoring all Arab media. Perhaps Al-Jazeera was busy videoing how American troops were presumably killing innocent Muslims in Afghanistan, agitating its millions of viewers against some Danish cartoons, or crying foul against veil laws imposed on French women. China, Syria and Al-Jazeera understand media as a propaganda tool owned by police states, nothing else. For that, they should be shunned, whether they are good economic partners, like China, potential peace signatories, like Syria, or owners of massive deposits of natural gas, like Qatar.