Group 2
Dallas Smith
Micah Reis
Jeremy Tabuyo
Kupono Chang
Chapter 12
War with Mexico
• War broke out due to the expansionist spirit. The USA was
bullying due to a lack of recognition of Texas as part of the
USA and some defaulted debts.
• Polk sent Zachary Taylor to Texas to defend the border, but the
border was not defined, therefore differing opinions of borders
logically lead to conflict.
Taylor arrived and went past the Nueces River (Mexico's Border) to the Rio Grande
(USA's border), occupying the disputed area.
• Polk sent John Sidell to Mexico to buy Texas, New Mexico, and
California, but he was not received by the Mexicans.
• Polk was angered and had Taylor press on to the Rio Grande.
A skirmish broke out, and Polk asked for a declaration of war.
• Abe Lincoln tried to pass the Spot Resolution, daring Polk to
cite on a map the location of the skirmish. Lincoln felt the
attack was on Mexican soil or fabricated to start a war in
order to expand slavery.
Slavery: Fire Bell in the
Night Rings Again
• With peace and prosperity the issue of slavery rose again
in regard to the status of new territory.
• Interestingly, there seemed little hope for slavery in
California, Oregon, and New Mexico, but pro-slave and
abolitionist politicians began to posture politically.
• Few congressmen, north or south, supported equal rights
for blacks, free or slave, but the institution of slavery was
more fundamental and volatile.
• Southern view was that slavery was part of the
economic, political, and social fabric of the region and
represented huge capital investments. Therefore,
southern congressmen fought every attack on the
institution and pressured for expansion.
The Election of 1848
• Great opportunity to call the question of slavery in the
territories. Unfortunately, Whigs and Democrats avoided
• The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor- he refused to even
comment on any political positions and had no
• Democrats split. Polk drove northern Democrats out due
to Texas, and political fighting led to a fractured
• Van Buren created the Free-soil Party and gained
300,000 votes.
• Taylor won by a narrow margin. The issue of slavery was
avoided and continued to fester.
The Gold Rush
• By 1849, the US government was in awe of the mass migration
to California.
• Gold fever was being reinforced by numerous discoveries,
easy access to surface gold, and sensationalized stories
traveling the world.
• White males dominated the area, and Hispanic residents were
a minority facing racism - "greasers". Blacks also faced racism,
and the Native American population was in the way of
capitalism and dramatically dropped in the area.
• Zachary Taylor, a slave holder, made a surprise decision to
allow California to make the decision of free or slave state.
California chose.
• Talk of secession began. Radicals and extremists in the South
used this imbalance to extend their crusade for slave states.
Compromise of 1850
• A. The "Great Compromiser", Henry Clay, rose to save the day.
The aging Clay found support from an old Whig, Webster, to
help avoid crisis.
• B. Clay postponed the Civil War for 11 years. The Compromise
of 1850 admitted California as a free state and used popular
sovereignty as a standard to guide slave territories
• C. Webster will give his famous March 7th speech calling for
compromise and support of Clay's proposal - again choosing
property rights over individual rights.
• D. Calhoun, old and dying, defied the compromise and
called for the North to appease the South on all points,
including slavery.
Key terms
• Manifest Destiny - the belief that God wanted the U.S. to
continue expanding, and by doing so, the less fortunate
people in the western hemisphere could enjoy the blessings of
a democratic institution
• Whig party - past National Republicans calling themselves
Whigs to suggest affinity with revolutionary radicals. The party
was composed of industrialists and merchants from the
northeast, wealthy farmers from the west, and southern
• Distribution Act 1836 - allotted all federal revenues in excess of
$5 million to the states (according to their population)
• Santa Anna - president of Mexico during the Texas War for
Independence and the Mexican War. After both of these
wars, he ceded the northern provinces of Mexico and Texas to
the U.S.Alamo
• 1835 - a church in San Antonio and was the site of a battle
between Mexican and Texan armies.
Chapter 13
• The increased importance of cotton in the South
strengthened the hold of slavery on the region.
• Mississippi took in some 10,000 slaves annually; by
1830 the black population of the state exceeded
the white.
• Well-managed plantations yielded annual profits of
10 percent and more, and, in general money
Southern pro slavery
• (Apologist View)
o Religion-Does NOT say it is "wrong”
o The Bible had cited slavery and the condition of the
o Negroes were descendants of Canaan, son of Ham,
condemned by Noah to be servants of servants.
o Neither prophets of the Old Testament or Christ
condemned slaves.
Argument of Omission
• Historically slavery had always existed, even in great cultures
of Greece and Rome
• Some apologist's suggested that slaves were better off than
Northern immigrants in the industrial areas of New England.
The fact that whites can move and improve, as well as holding
the ability to vote, was ignored.
• The traditional argument of Black inferiority to blacks coupled
with the time less argument that lower classes allow dominate
classes to rise to new intellectual heights by providing labor.
Constitution and law
• Slavery is cited 3 times in the constitution-1808
termination of slave trade and "Southern
Compromise" 3/5 clause for voting , South had to
pay 3/5 more taxes for added representation.
• Fugitive Slave Law
o George Fitzhurg "It is a Common Remark". A southerner authored a book
supporting the above arguments of slavery helps the more worthy class
excel to new heights.
o Cannot generalize about the institution of slavery because individual
masters behaviors varied.
o Slaves that broke laws or the master's wishes did not go to jail or prison, but
were beaten to modify their behavior.
Psychological Effects of
• A. Slavery was clearly a gross injustice but covert
influences on blacks and whites were often corrosive
• B. Whippings and beatings were common actions taken
against blacks for defiance, some blacks faced death
for their attacks against the oppression of slavery
• C. Denmark Vessy was perhaps the most dramatic
example. p. 350. He bought his freedom and preached
resistance to blacks. Vessy planned an uprising for five
years only to be betrayed by his recruits.
• 1. Male
a) Sambo -lazy and docile
b) Buck - superpontent and aggressive
a) Mammy - nurturing and faithful
b) Jezebel- seductive and wanton
• 2. Female
Manufacturing in the South
• Southern prejudice against manufacturing did not
stop manufacturing and industrialization.
• 15% of the industrial output of the USA came from
the South, with a focus on textiles, lumber, and iron
• Much of the industry in the South was dependent
on northern technology and machines.
The Northern Industrial
• A. Northern region industrial production grew
dramatically after the War of 1812.
• B. This explosion in growth was due to numerous
1. Inventions and technology-RR, deep plow
2. Natural resources-coal and steel
3. New Transportation RR, steamships, canals
4. Immigration-labor
5. Entrepreneurs
6. 1830-1860 A huge increase in immigration
A Nation of Immigrants
• All in America are immigrants but due to Nationalism of
the USA a new concept of Nativism emerged. Huge
Concept and part of racism for 150 years.
• Ironically White Americans or WASP referred to
themselves as "true natives" rather than the Native
o Social and racial rivalries occurred against immigrants like Irish or blacks.
• Also inherent in this is anti-Catholicism and anti-Semitism.
• Conditions and wages dropped in mills, less young farm
women worked in factories, a shift in the labor force
Foreign Commerce
• Cotton was #1 export and ironically textiles and iron
were the one and two greatest imports largely from
England like the old days.
• Whaling boomed for oil, blubber and perfume.
Huge profits 100% per voyage.
The Economy on the Eve of the
Civil War
• 1840 to the mid 1850's marked one of the greatest
periods of industrialization in USA history. Henry Clay's
American System arrived as he passed.
• Russian wheat returned to the markets in 1857 as an
agriculture depression hit the upper Midwest.
• The Panic of 1857 gave this economic growth a measure
of reality.
• Although the South escaped the pain of the Panic of
1857. Cotton prices remained high and the South felt
that the antebellum period would continue forever"Cotton is King.”
Key Terms
• WASP: White Anglo-Saxon Protestant Apologist
View: manipulating the Bible to further the purpose.
• Nativism: prejudice against foreign born.
• Commonwealth v Hunt: established labor unions.
• Black Inferiority: fuel for southern argument that the
Declaration of Independence does not apply to
• Mountain Whites: people living in near poverty in
the hills of the Appalachia living in ignorance and
Chapter 14
Know-Nothings, Republicans, and the Demise of
the Two-Party System
• 91 free state democrats in House of Representatives
when the Nebraska act was passed.
• One of those parties were the American, AKA
“Know-Nothing” party. Grew out of secret society
• American party was important in the South and
• Abolitionist often interfered with the enforcement of
the law
The Dred Scott Decision
• Dred Scott was John Emerson’s body servant/slave
• When Emerson died both Dred Scott and his wife went
to court for their liberty
• Missouri Compromise outlawed slavery, which made
them free
• Blacks were not citizens, therefore Scott could not sue in
federal court.
• In the constitution it says that all citizens of each state
should be entitled to all privileges and immunities.
• Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional which didn't
make Dred Scott free.
Lecompton Constitution
• Proslavery leaders in Kansas managed to convene
a constitutional convention at Lecompton.
• Drafted a proslavery constitution and didn't submit it
to a fair vote.
• All but one out of the 56 newspapers in Illinois had
declared against the Lecompton constitution
• Douglas and Buchanan had a dramatic
confrontation at the White House.
• October 1857 a new legislature was chosen in
Kansas, antislavery voters participated.
• Buchanan persisted in pressing Congress to admit
Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution.
The Emergence of Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was chosen to the Republican of Illinois
He was chosen to go against Stephen A. Douglas
Dissolution threatened the Union
Lincoln wasn't unknown in 1858
When he was 7 years old his family moved to Indiana
He almost received no formal schooling
He always had a good mind and was very ambitious.
At the age of 25 he won a seat in the Illinois legislature as
a whig.
• Remained in legislature until 1842
• In 1846 he was elected to congress
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
• Lincoln seemed the logical man to pit against Douglas in
• In July Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of seven
• Both men were campaigning for candidates for the
legislature who were pledge to support them the Senate
• They both maintained a high intellectual level in there
• Douglas’s strategy was to make Lincoln look like an
• Lincoln tried to picture Douglas as a proslavery and a
defender of the Dred Scott decision.
The Election of 1860
• By 1860 the nation was teetering on the brink of disunion
• The constitutional unionist ignored the conflicts
• Western and Northern states had majority of the
electoral votes
• Republicans were sure to come out on top
• Lincoln avoided campaign and made no public
• Douglas recognize that Lincoln would win certainly
• Lincoln had 1.866 million votes
• Lincoln swept the north and west
• Douglas received 1.383 million votes
• Douglas only carried Missouri and part of New Jersey
The Secession Crisis
• Days after Lincolns victory South Carolina’s legislature
ordered and election of delegates
• December 20 the convention voted unanimously to
• In Montgomery, Alabama, a provisional government of
the Confederate states of America was established
• Arkansas threatened if the federal government
attempted to use force against the Confederacy they
would also secede
• All northerners were known as “Yankee Abolitionists”
• Not every slave owner could contemplate secession
with such bloodthirsty equanimity.
Key Terms
Popular sovereignty: Designed to pacify both the North and the
South. It allowed the people of the territory to decide if they were
going to legalize slavery or not.
Ostend Manifesto: This was a policy to acquire Cuba as a slave
Fugitive Slave Law: This law denied fugitives a jury trial, prevented
them from testifying on their own behalf, and allowed ex-slaves to
be returned to the South if their master recognized them.
Free Soilers: Party against spread of slavery, but not against the
institution of slavery.
Know-Nothing Party: Party against immigrants and was formed
around Nativism.
New Republican Party: Party of freedom, keep slavery out of
Personal Liberty Laws: Laws passed in the North and inhibited the
extradition of runaway slaves. Reaction to the Fugitive Slave Law.
Chapter 15
Cabinet Making
• Lincoln's cabinet was greatly anticipated because
it would reveal much regarding the intentions of the
new Republican leader.
• William Seward, Secretary of State, was hoping to
conciliate the south which made him controversial
with the radical Republicans.
• Senator Solomon Chase from Ohio, a radical
Republican, was appointed Secretary of Treasury
by Lincoln. Lincoln's Inaugural Address was
revealing; he called for unity and the protection of
the Union.
Fort Sumter – The First
• Lincoln debated how to deal with the secession of the
deep South and vowed not to push southern seizures of
• Lincoln took a moderate course and attempted to
resupply Fort Sumter and General Anderson.
• The South, under General Beauregard, attacked Fort
Sumter. After 34 hours a surrender was issued by
• Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers. Virginia, North
Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas seceded. Middle
States remained torn.
• Washington D.C. and the Baltimore region had
numerous southern sympathizers that were willing to try
and subvert the efforts of the Union.
The Blue & The Grey
• The North had huge advantages over the
Confederacy, especially in a protracted war of
• Earlier, in 1858, Senator Hammond from South
Carolina taunted his northern colleagues stating,
"no power on earth dares to make war against King
• The Northern advantage was dramatic:
o 1. Population - North 20 million v. South 9 million (3.5 million were slaves).
(excluding Missouri and Kentucky)
o 2. Manufacturing - North approx. 85% v. South approx. 15%
o 3. Fire arms production - North 97% v. South %
o 4. The north had a much more advanced railroad system5. The north
controlled the Merchant Marines and Navy.
The Test of Battle: Bull Run
• 1st Battle at Manasass Jct. in the Eastern Theater of war.
A revealing conflict.
• The Union army, under McDowell, and the southern
army, under Beauregard, clashed 20 miles south of
Washington DC on a branch of the Potomac, known as
Bull Run.
• The retreat by the north was a disaster, numerous
sightseers and others who watched the battle were over
run, and the South, tired and unorganized.
• Lincoln changed his strategy moving to incorporate
Scott's Anaconda Plan of a naval blockade. He created
a new 3 year army of 500,000 and appoint General
McClellan already successful in west Virginia.
Key Terms
• 1. Conscription Act: Confederate government gave
exemptions to slave owners with 20 or more slaves, college
professors and mail carriers and also allowed hiring substitutes
• 2. Copperheads: Extreme Northern Democrats believed the
Union could be preserved if slavery was not attacked hard
money advocates.
• 3. Anaconda Plan: North used this plan to strangle the south's
economy and end the civil war. Plan was to block southern
shipping, cut off Louisiana and Texas from the rest of the south
and Mississippi river, and divide the remaining southern states
in half.
• 4. Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan: Lincoln's plan provided for
forgiving reconstruction policies that allowed southern states
to restore their old government after ten percent the voters
had given an oath of loyalty to the union.
• 5. Radical Republicans: Strong advocates of abolition, Lincoln
distanced himself from the radicals.
Chapter 16
Reconstruction and the South
• Presidential Reconstruction
o The civil war caused less intersectional hatred than expected
o Invading armies treated the southern population politely, during and after
o Northerners threatened to hang Jeff Davis on sour apple tree.
o In 1867 the military turned Davis over to the civil courts
o 1861 Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens
o Process or readmission began in 1862.
o Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, insisted
that the Confederate States had "committed suicide" and should be
treated like "conquered provinces.
Republican Radicals
• a. Republican radicals were split into two groups
• b. Ultra Radicals-Senator Charles Sumner
• c. Demanding immediate and absolute civil and political
equality for blacks.
• d. Moderate Radicals- Thaddeus Stevens and Senate Ben
• e. Agreed with the Ultras objectives but willing to win the
support of less radical colleagues.
• f. The moderate Republicans wanted to protect the former
slaves from exploitation and guarantee their basic rights.
• g. Southern voters had further provoked northern resentment
by their choice of congressman.
• h. So called Black Codes enacted by southern governments
to control former slaves alarmed the North.
Black Republican
• Radicals succeeded in imposing there will on the
• Former slaves receive their privileges/immunities by
the fourth amendment
• In South Carolina blacks proved in the main able
and conscientious public servants
• In the Prostrate South 1874 James S. Pike wrote The
rule of South Carolina should not be dignified.
• During Reconstruction, 14 blacks won election to
the House of Representatives.
Key Terms
Reconstruction- The post-civil war period up to the election of 1876
which marked Congress's attempted reconstruction of the South
Black Codes- blacks could testify in court cases, marry, and some
other rights, but could not bear arms or do anything other then
Force Acts (1872)- this would break up the KKK and other intolerant
groups so blacks could vote13th amendment- Ended slavery
14th amendment (1868)- (most important of the 3) Established due
process under law; Stopped states from passing laws that denied
personal privilege.
15th amendment (1870)- secured suffrage for black males; sent to
the states for ratification
Wade-Davis Bill (1864)- first attempt at Reconstruction by Congress;
pocket-vetoed by Lincoln
Civil Rights Act (1866)- protected newly freed black population and
invalidated the black codes