Current Trends in Migration

See diagram p131 Philip Allan
Displaced person – People who are forced to move,
by war, famine, political persecution or natural
The UN defines a refugee as:
‘A well founded fear of being persecuted for reasons
of race, religion, nationality, membership of a
particular social group, or political opinion, is outside
the country of their nationality, and is unable to or,
owning to such fear, is unwilling to avail him/herself of
the protection of that country’
Asylum seekers – the migrants who claim for
asylum/residence to be granted as they believe
themselves to be a refugee. If refugee status is given
they are allowed to stay, but if it is turned down, the
immigrant may be deported
Illegal migrants – People who avoid border
and immigration controls and enter a new
country illegally. Many are voluntary
migrants seeking work, but some may be
forced as part of ‘human trafficking’ to
enter prostitution or other illegal activities
Voluntary migrants – People who move for
quality of life reasons, usually economic
gain (economic migrants). Many move
temporarily (contract workers and
professionals), returning home after months
or years.
Globalisation has made moving about
much easier in recent years
In 2005 190million people were living
outside their country of birth – 3% of the
8% of the UK’s current population is foreign
The former colonies have played a big part
in the formation of the multicultural
societies in places like Britain...migrants
have come in waves
The British Empire – People of these colonies were entitled to move to the
UK, and in 1950 many people came to the UK to fill labour shortages in
industries like the railways, buses and the NHS.
People from these colonies were granted citizenship from 1948 – 1962.
By 1972 the rules had changed to only allow people with work permits or
people with grandparents and parents born in the UK to settle here
Have a look at:
Migration into the UK since 1950 diagram
The Geography of UK post colonial
The EU has 5.5% of the population from
Have a look at the map on p102 Pearson
to see the % of migrants
Read p104-105 Pearson
Immigration into Greece
Illegal immigration to Europe does seem to
be on the rise although data on this is hard
to collect. Why?
Anywhere between 4 –8 million illegal
African migrants are thought to be in the
EU, with the UK having 500,000 of these.
The EU is an economic powerhouse on
their doorstep!
Many enter through the Canary islands or
Malta p 134-135 Philip Allan
Concern has been expressed about the
number of asylum seekers in Europe as many
are though to be economic migrants.
Asylum claims peaked at the end of the 1990s,
the again in 2001 (Iraq war) and have since
decreased. - see p135 Philip Allan
Most asylum seekers are from the middle and
near east(Iraq, Afghanistan, Iran and
Also other places with difficulties(Russia, Serbia
and war torn Africa eg Sudan)
You can see that
leading up to early
2000s there was a huge
rise in asylum
applications between
1998 - 2000
You can see that the
majority of asylum seekers
were coming from the
Middle East in 2001, mainly
due to the start of the War
on Terror
From 2000 migration between the EU has increased with
many nations experiencing positive net migration
There is a negative net migration however for the Eastern
European countries-as many are low income so people seek
better economic opportunities (post accession migrationsince joining the EU)
The core EU countries(UK, Germany and France) have
positive net migration (mainly from E Europe and from
EU countries around the Mediterranean basin have the
highest net migration as ‘sunseekers’ move from the North to
the South
See map p 136 Philip Allan
1995 EU border controls were removed when the
Schengen Agreement was put in place. This
enabled the easier movements of goods and
people (often without passports). The UK did not
2004 was the original EU expansion of 8 low
income Eastern European countries (Latvia,
Lithuania, Estonia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia,
Slovakia and the Czech Republic). UK allowed
free migration of these people (as well as
Swtizerland and Ireland) but other EU member
states imposed restrictions for up to 7 years.
• EU labour can move to
where the demand is
• People have lost jobs
through the undercutting
of wages
• This applies to high and
low skilled jobs
• Encourages
• Have caused racial
tensions in some
Malta and Cyprus also joined in 2004, with Bulgaria and
Romania in 2007. The UK imposed restrictions on
movements of these people. See map p 137 Philip Allan