Preface Acknowledgements Author Disclaimer 1. INTRODUCTION

Author Disclaimer
1.1 Introduction 1.2 Chapter review 1.2.1 Chapter 2: Personal Factors 1.2.2 Chapter 3: Physical
Factors 1.2.3 Chapter 4: Environmental Factors 1.2.4 Chapter 5: Equipment Design 1.2.5
Chapter 6: Workplace Design 1.2.6 Chapter 7: Job Factors 1.2.7 Chapter 8: Information
Processing 1.2.8 Chapter 9: Human Factors in the Planning, Design and Execution of Projects
1.3 Model for the Systematic Implementation of Ergonomics/ Human Factors 1.4 Review
Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 1.5 References
2.1 Introduction 2.2 Sensory and Cognitive Capabilities 2.2.1 Visual Sense
Accommodation of the Eye Visual Field Process of Adaptation Color
Vision Visual Acuity Age 2.2.2 Auditory Sense 2.2.3 Cognitive Capabilities Attention Perception Memory Decision Making 2.24 Summary of
Information Processing 2.3 Physical Capabilities 2.3.1 Muscular Strength and Endurance
Factors Affecting Strength Endurance and Fatigue 2.3.2 Anthropometry: Body Size Sources of Body Size Variability Principles of Body Size Application 2.4 Case
Study 2.4.1 Method Participants Equipment Procedure 2.4.2 Data
Collected Data Analyses 2.4.3 Conclusion Recommendations for Existing
Operations 2.5 Review Questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 2.6
3.1 Musculoskeletal Disorders 3.2 Manual Handling Tasks 3.2.1 Manual Handling Risk Factors
3.2.2 Methods for Evaluation Manual Handling Tasks Postural Observation Checklists
for Manual Handling Tasks Calculation of Weight Limit for Two-handed Lifting Tasks Biomechanical Models 3.3 Hand-intensive Repetitive Tasks 3.3.1 Risk Factors 3.3.2
Survey/Observation Tools 3.3.3 Hand Tools 3.4 Behavior 3.5 Ergonomics Program 3.5.1 Risk
Assessment Process 3.5.2 Solutions 3.5.3 Evaluating the Ergonomics Program 3.6 Case Study
3.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 3.8 References
4.1 Introduction 4.2 Illumination 4.2.1 Lighting and Performance Lighting Quantity Task Factors Age Factor Lighting Quality Lighting Color Glare Luminance Ratio 4.3 Temperature 4.3.1 Effects of Heat on Performance Cognitive Tasks Physical Activities 4.3.2 Effects of Cold on Performance
Cognitive Tasks Physical Activities 4.3.3 Effects of Heat on Health Hot
Environment Cold Environment 4.3.4 Comfort/Discomfort Zone 4.3.5 Work Tolerance in
Hot Environment 4.3.6 Recommendations to Improve Working Conditions Guidelines
for Heat Conditions Guidelines for Cold Conditions 4.4 Noise 4.4.1 Effects of Noise on
Performance Speech and Communication Cognitive Performance
Nuisance and Distraction 4.4.2 Effects of Noise on Health Aging Hearing Loss
Noise-Induced Hearing Loss 4.4.3 Guidelines to Control Noise Noise Control at Source Noise Control in Path of Noise Transmission Noise Control at The receiver 4.5
Vibration 4.5.1 Effects of Vibration on Performance Motor Control Visual
Performance 4.5.2 Effects of Vibration on Health 4.5.3 Guidelines to Reduce/Control Vibration
4.6 Case Study 4.6.1 Method 4.6.2 Results 4.6.3 Recommendations 4.6.4 Installation of a Pilot
Lighting System 4.6.5 Final Results 4.7 Review Questions: Test Your Understanding of the
Material in This Chapter 4.8 References
5.1 Human System Interface 5.2 Controls 5.2.1 Physical Requirements of Operating Controls
5.2.2 Types of Controls 5.2.3 Controls Labels and Identification 5.2.4 Stereotypes 5.2.5 Access
to Operate 5.2.6 Preventing Accidental Operation 5.2.7 Valves 5.3 Visual Displays 5.3.1 Types
of Visual Displays 5.3.2 Mounting Displays 5.4 Relationship between Controls and Visual
Displays 5.5 Auditory Displays 5.6 Field Control Panels 5.6.1 Field Panel Layout 5.6.2 Field
Panel Labeling 5.6.3 Improving Field Control Panels 5.7 Process Control Displays 5.7.1 Process
Control Display Interface Display Hierarchy Contents of Displays Display
Layout Abbreviations and Labels Alarms Text Messages Lines and
Arrows Numeric Values Use of Color Display Access Symbols
5.7.2 Approach for developing Process Control Displays Initial Survey Scope the
Improvements Prepare the Interface Design Team Brief the Board Operators Execute the Interface Design Effort Obtain Operator Feedback Transfer to
the New System Summary 5.8 Case Study 5.9 Review Questions: Test Your
Understanding of the Material in this Chapter 5.10 References APPENDIX 1: Checklist for
Equipment Design
6.1 Introduction 6.2 Workplace Design Principles 6.2.1 Introduction 6.2.2 Controls and displays
are optimally located 6.2.3 Equipment is visually accessible 6.2.4 The workplace is designed for
the user population People differ in the characteristics necessary to perform within the
workplace Workplaces are designed to accommodate the extremes of the user population Workplaces adjust to the characteristics of the user population 6.2.5 Equipment is
physically accessible Aisleways and corridors Distances are optimal between
adjacent pieces of equipment Ladders, stairs, walkways and platforms Stairs,
ladders and ramps Walkways and platforms Pathway obstructions: Eliminate or
mark to increase recognition 6.2.6 Positioning work Position work within the range of
motion of the body Place frequently used materials and tools within easy reach
Avoid static loads and fixed work postures Design to encourage frequent changes in
body posture Avoid causing the upper limbs to work above the shoulder Avoid
work that causes the spine to be twisted Ensure that the forces on the limbs and joints are
within their capabilities Minimize manual handling Provide specialized tools to
reduce body stress 6.2.7 Design Standards: Workstations and seating are designed according to
accepted Ergonomic Standards Major categories of workstations in the process
workplace Seated workstations Standing workstations Sit/Stand
workstations Selecting the optimal workstation design Workstation design
standards Seated Workstations Standing Workstations Sit/Stand
Workstations Seating 6.2.8 Maintenance and maintainability Design
considerations Maintenance considerations 6.2.9 Summary of Design Principles 6.3
Analytical techniques in workplace design: 6.3.1 Activity Analysis 6.3.2 Task Analysis 6.3.3
LINK Analysis 6.4 Human Factors Design processes for existing and new workstations 6.5 Case
Study: Redesign of a control room in an existing plant 6.6 Review Questions: Test Your
Understanding of the material in this Chapter 6.7 References
7.1 Introduction 7.2 Shiftwork and Work Schedule 7.2.1 Sleep and Sleep Disorders
Normal Sleep Sleep Behavior and Disorders Fatigue 7.2.2 Effects of Shiftwork on
Performance 7.2.3 Effects of Shiftwork on Health 7.2.4 Effects of Shiftwork on Psychosocial
Life Shift Schedule Worked Individual Differences Personal and Social
Life 7.2.5 Shiftwork Schedule Design Length of Shift Rotation of Shift
Direction of Rotation Speed of Rotation Number of Consecutive Days off
7.2.6 Coping Strategies with Shiftwork Sleep Diet Keeping Body Clock in
Synch Personal and Mental Hygiene Strategies for Night Work
Organizational Strategies Education Facilities Design Career
Opportunities Planned Maintenance Napping 7.2.7 Process For Creating or Changing
Shift Schedules 7.3 Stress 7.3.1 Sources and Causes of Stress 7.3.2 Coping Strategies 7.4 Job
Analysis 7.4.1 Task Analysis Purpose of Task Analysis When to Use Task
Analysis Who can perform a Task Analysis? Process of the Task Analysis 7.4.2
Critical Task Identification and Analysis Methodology Critical Task Identification
Process Critical Task Analysis Follow-up Documentation 7.5 Team-Based
Approach 7.5.1 Cognitive Problem Solving Style (KAI) 7.5.2 Drexler-Sibbett High Performance
Team Model 7.5.3 ACUMEN 7.5.4 SYMLOG - Systematic Multilevel Observation of Groups
7.6 Behavior-Based Safety 7.6.1 Lessons Learned Implementation During
Training Observations Measure Positive Outcomes 7.6.2 Recommended
Core and Ancillary Elements of BBS Program Recommended Program Elements
Practical Considerations for Implementation 7.7 Case Study 7.7.1 Introduction 7.7.2 Task
Analysis 7.7.3 Biomechanical Analysis 7.8 Review Questions: Test your Understanding of the
Material in this Chapter 7.9 References
8.1 Human Error 8.1.1 Introduction 8.1.2 Why humans make errors 8.1.3 Mental errors 8.1.4
Display errors 8.1.5 Environmental causes 8.1.6 System factors that lead to error 8.2 Plant signs
and labels 8.2.1 Equipment labeling program 8.2.2 Designing signs and labels Content of
the message Message layout Appearance of Characters Placement
of sign or label 8.2.3 Guidelines for specific types of signs and labels Pipe labeling Electrical wire and cables labeling Equipment labels Equipment signs Sampling points Information signs 8.3 Procedures 8.3.1 Guidelines for when a
procedure is needed 8.3.2 Developing procedures 8.3.3. Format of written procedures 8.3.4 How
to determine why a procedure was not used 8.3.5 How to evaluate written procedures 8.4
Training 8.4.1 Developing training 8.4.2 Task analysis for training development 8.4.3 Contents
of a training package 8.4.4 Training for trainers 8.4.5 When to provide training 8.4.6 Evaluating
training 8.5 Vigilance 8.5.1 Transportation systems 8.5.2 Control room operations 8.5.3 Mining
operations 8.5.4 Driving performance 8.5.6 Factors contributing to vigilance decrement 8.5.7
Operator workload analysis 8.6 Case study: Procedure for how to change a tire 8.7 Review
questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 8.8 References
ATTACHMENT 1: Procedures evaluation checklist
9.1 Introduction 9.2 Project management 9.2.1 Management of major projects 9.2.2 Management
of Base Projects 9.3 Human Factors Tools for Project Management 9.3.1 Human Factors
Tracking Data Base 9.3.2 HF Review -- Planning Phase 9.3.3. Safety, Health and Environmental
Review 9.3.4. Human Factors Training for the Project Team 9.3.5. Human Factors in the Hazard
and Operability Reviews (HAZOP)9.3.6 Procedures 9.3.7 Analysis Techniques 9.3.8 QA/QC
Review Process 9.3.9 Pre- Start-up Human Factors Review 9.3.10 HF awareness for
Construction Contractors and Company Personnel 9.3.11 Post Project Review 9.4 Review
questions: Test your understanding of the Material in this Chapter 9.5 References