Chapter 15

Slides for
Phil Hughes
and Ed Ferrett
Physical and psychological health
hazards and control
Physical and psychological health
hazards and control
After reading this chapter you should be able to:
1. Identify work processes and practices that may give rise to
musculoskeletal health problems (in particular work-related upper limb
disorders – WRULD) and suggest practical control measures
2. Identify common welfare and work environment requirements in the
3. Describe the health effects associated with exposure to noise and suggest
appropriate control measures
4. Describe the health effects associated with exposure to vibration and
suggest appropriate control measures
5. Describe the principal health effects associated with heat, ionising and
non-ionising radiation and outline basic protection techniques
6. Explain the causes and effects of stress at work and suggest appropriate
control actions
7. Describe the situations that present a risk of violence towards employees
and suggest ways of minimizing such risk
8. Describe the effects on health and safety of alcohol and drugs and outline
control actions.
After (a high chair
could also be
Figure 15.1 Workstation ergonomic
design improvements
Figure 15.2 Poor workstation
layout may cause WRULD
Figure 15.3 Injuries which can be
caused by hand-arm vibration
Figure 15.4 Mounted breaker to
reduce vibration for the operator
Figure 15. 5 Vibrating Roller
Figure 15.6 Workstation design
Figure 15.7 Well lit workplace
Figure 15.8 Better to control noise at
source rather than wear ear protection
Figure 9 Passage of sound waves
(a)The ear with cochlea uncoiled
and (b) summary of transmission
Figure 15.10 and Table 15.6 Typical ear
protection zone signs and sound pressure levels
Table 15.7 Need for a noise assessment
(a) The quiet area is subjected to
reflected noise from a machine
somewhere else in the building
(b) The correct use of absorption in
the roof will reduce the reflected
noise reaching the quiet area
(c) Segregation of the noisy
operation will benefit the whole
Figure 15.11 Noise paths found in a workplace
Figure 15.12 Heat equation
The IAEA Ionizing Radiation
warning symbol –ISO 21482
Recently introduced
The radiation
hazard symbol
Figure 15.13 Ionizing
Radiation warning signs
Figure 15.14 A Class 4 laser setup for defeatable
access control for properly trained persons
Figure 15.15 Specialized eye
protection for work with lasers
Figure 15.16 Security coded
access and surveillance CCTV
Typical noise assessment record
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