SBI4U Nov 13,12 Quiz on Endocrine System on Tues, Nov 20th,12 Today’s Class: a) Regulation of blood glucose b) Steroid hormones Regulation of Blood Glucose Hormones produced by pancreatic islet cells of Langerhans Insulin - Released from the beta pancreatic cells when blood sugar levels are high (e.g : after a meal) - - Converts extra sugar - or glucose glycogen Glucagon - Released from alpha pancreatic cells when blood sugar levels are low (e.g: fasting) - -Converts glycogen glucose Diabetes Diabetes mellitus (Type 1) Pancreas is unable to produce insulin Inject insulin Adult-onset diabetes (Type 2) Decrease in insulin production/ineffective use of insulin. Injection not necessary Controlled with diet, oral drugs, exercise Gestational diabetes Usually temporary, affects 2-4% of pregnancies High risks of developing full diabetes in baby & mom. FYI only ** A1C test result of 7% or less indicates that you are helping to prevent the long-term complications of diabetes. Steroids hormones Natural : produced by the body Testosterone, estrogens, progestins. Synthetic: mimic the effect of natural hormones. Anabolic steroids mimic muscle-building traits of testosterone. e.g of synthetic steroid: EPO stimulates RBC production therefore more O2 more endurance. Q1) Glucagon is produced in an organ and effects target cells that are in another part of the body. The organ of production and the location of the target cells are respectively: a ) adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex b) Pituitary and adrenal medulla c) Liver and pancreas d) Pancreas and liver e) Hypothalamus & pituitary Questions- Activity Q1) Glucagon is produced in an organ and effects target cells that are in another part of the body. The organ of production and the location of the target cells are respectively: a ) adrenal medulla & adrenal cortex b) Pituitary and adrenal medulla c) Liver and pancreas d) Pancreas and liver e) Hypothalamus & pituitary Q2) a laboratory mice is accidentally given too much insulin and begins convulsing. What could you do to quickly return the animal to a normal blood sugar? (a) increase water intake (b) cool the animal as quickly as possible (c) provide sugar in a fruit drink (d) warm the animal as quickly as possible Q2) a laboratory mice is accidentally given too much insulin and begins convulsing. What could you do to quickly return the animal to a normal blood sugar? (a) increase water intake (b) cool the animal as quickly as possible (c) provide sugar in a fruit drink (d) warm the animal as quickly as possible Q3) Is caffeine considered a synthetic steroid? Yes, it mimics the effect of adrenaline causes increase in heart rate and blood pressure and increased alertness. Q4) Using a flow chart, show a homeostatic adjustment for a person who has consumed significant amount of carbohydrates in the past hour. Answer: Carbohydrate intake carbs digested by small intestine simple sugar absorbed blood sugar increases insulin produced and released (beta pancreatic cells)Insulin acts on muscles, adipose tissue( fat) and liver causes a.a levels to decrease by promoting proteins synthesis and inhibiting their degradation also causes fatty acids uptake & storage in adipose tissue and inhibits break down of fats to fatty acids will also inhibit breakdown of glycogen to glucose and increase absorption of glucose by liver and storage as glycogen blood sugar decreases. Q4) The North American lifestyle and diet are believed to be major contributors to type 2 diabetes. Many companies know that foods can be more palatable to consumer by adding sugars and fats. Explain how this practice of adding sugars and fats to food can cause type 2 diabetes. Answer: Adding sugar causes problems because excess sugar is converted to fat which usually leads to increased body mass.Obesity increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. A diet with increased amount of sugar increases the production of insulin and can contribute to type 2 diabetes .Islet cells will eventually fail due to constant production of insulin and glucose levels will rise. Reproductive Hormones Reproductive Hormones They are steroid hormones. Produced by gonads (testes, ovaries) Androgens, estrogens, & progestins. Questions-Activity Pg.496-501 Female Reproductive Organs Male Reproductive Organs Q2. What are 2 predominant reproductive steroid hormones in females? and what is the principal hormone for each of the two predominant reproductive hormones? Estrogen & progestin . Estrogen Estradiol Progestin progesterone Q3. What are 3 main functions of estradiol? 1) Maturation of sex organ at puberty and development of sexual characteristics 2) body hair growth 3) development of sex drive Q4. What controls FSH & LH release? GNRH ( Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) Q5. What are the two hormones that are produced by the ovaries? Estrogen & progesterone Q6. Draw a feedback loop showing the regulation of ovarian hormones. Q7. Draw a feedback loop for FSH and LH hormones regulation in sperm production. Q8. What is the main function of testes? Production of sperm & testosterone Q9. Can a woman who has reached menopause become pregnant No, once monopause has been reached naturally she can no longer become pregnant. Because she is no longer able to produce eggs however if egg is transferred from a donor then she can still carry a child.