Praxis II - Grant County Schools

Praxis II
Study Guide for Special
10352 Application of Core Principles Across Disabilities,
20353 Core Content Knowledge,
20371 Teaching Students with Behavioral Disorders/Emotional
Disturbances, and
10542 Mild to Moderate Disabilities
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Goals and Objectives…
1. To review key information about special
education in order to score a passing
score on the Praxis.
2. To look at test taking approaches to
assist with the successful completion
of the Praxis.
What Do I need to Study?
• To determine the Praxis assessments
which are required for your
certification go to the ETS website
and find the corresponding test
Resources For Your Studies
• Glossary of educational terms
• Preview the strategies for taking a
• Test-Taking Presentation[1].ppt
Step 1
Choose the Praxis
assessments which you are
preparing to take.
• 10352
Application of Core Principles Across Disabilities,
• 20353
Core Content Knowledge,
• 20371 Teaching Students with Behavioral
Disorders/Emotional Disturbances,
• 10542
Mild to Moderate Disabilities and
Go to the ETS website and take the sample test
in each test at a glance booklet to match the
assessment you are taking.
Begin by taking the test and looking at the
question format, the types of questions and
the way the answers are explained.
Answer the questions and identify the areas that
you need more study.
Send me an email and include the assessments
you are taking, the date you are to take the
Praxis, your concerns based on the sample
tests and outline your study plan. Include an
introduction of yourself.
What is included in each
The breakdown of the content in each of
the assessments is included next. Any
underlined information will provide
additional information either located on
the internet or included on the CD.
Topics may overlap from one assessment
to another.
Types of multiple choice
questions on the test
Complete the statement
Which of the following
Roman Numeral choices
Not, least except
Interpretation of analysis of graph,
table, reading passages
Complete the Statement
• In this type of question, you are given an
incomplete statement and must select
the choice that makes the completed
sentence correct.
Which of the following?
• In this type of question you will be given
a limited list of responses and must
choose from the list. Many more
answers may correctly complete the
Roman Numeral Choices
• In this type of question, there can be more
than one correct answer in the list. You must
analyze all the statements headed by a Roman
Numeral, determine which will answer the
question correctly and then select the answer
that includes them.
I and IV
II and III
I and III
III and IV
• In this type of question, the words
NOT, LEAST, or EXCEPT are always
capitalized, but they are easily and
frequently overlooked. Read the
questions carefully, you may be
attracted to by answers that appear
to be correct, but do not take into
account the negative.
Interpretation or analysis of
graph, table or reading passage.
• In this type of question, data or
information must be interpreted or
analyzed. This may include tables and
charts, and reading passages.
To help prepare for the Praxis
• Make sure you have practiced each type of
multiple choice question and know how to
respond to each.
• Many people find that reading the questions and
looking at the answer choices immediately is the
best approach for most types of questions.
However, with the Roman Numeral choice, you
may want to generate your own answer, before
trying to choose the response that matches
your answer.
Assignment for Credit
• Write one of each type of multiple
choice questions about a topic in
special education that you feel the
least prepared to address on the
• Email your questions and answers to
Special Education –Applications of Core Principles
across Categories of Disability (10352)
• The categories include
managing the learning environment
and professional roles/issues/literature.
• This is a 50 items multiple choice test
which allows 1 hour to complete.
Understanding Exceptionalities
• Understanding of
human development:
Social and emotional
• Definitions of
specific disabilities
• Incidence and
prevalence of various
types of disabilities
• Causes and prevention
of disabilities
• The nature of
behaviors to include
frequency, duration,
intensity and degree
of severity
Basic Concepts in Special Education
• Federal laws and legal issues related to Special
Public Law 94-142
Public Law 101-476 (IDEA)
Public Law 105-17 (IDEA ’97)
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
• Important legal issues
Historical Movements and
Trends in Special Education
• Institutions and the
deinstitutionalization movement
• Mainstreaming and Inclusion
• Transition
• Advocacy organizations
• How to modify and adapt the regular
• How to use specialized programs and
• Ways to address diversity in the classroom
• Ways to use technology
Sample Information
• Modification and adaptation of curriculum is usually
necessary for students with special needs. Modifying
instructional materials, creating study guides and
helping students to find effective alternative methods
of learning are just a few examples of modifying
• Assistive technology consists of any tool or
accommodation that enables children with special
learning needs to be included in educational
opportunities. In essence, assistive technology is a
strategy that expands a student’s access to the
• Computer assisted instruction is a method of
instruction that is effective for many children
with disabilities. The graphics and sound in a
computer program can help to maintain a
student’s attention and increase their motivation
toward learning. Many computer assisted
learning programs provide immediate feedback
and repetition which can enhance the learning
experience for a student with disabilities.
• An applied and integrated curriculum connects
academic and vocational learning.
• Applied Behavior Analysis is a practice of
learning theory that involves understanding what
leads to new skills. This approach is often
effective for children who have autism
• How to implement the
• IEP Implementation
• How to select and use
the appropriate
strategies and methods
Direct Instruction
Cooperative Learning
Task Analysis
Applied Behavior analysis
Learning styles
• Ways to select and
implement the format
and components of
Individualized instruction
Small Group Instruction
Large Group Instruction
Instructional modeling
Drill and Practice
• How to implement instruction in specific
Social skills
Vocational skills
Self –care and daily living skills
Study and organizational skills
Learning strategies
• Effective Instructional Practices
• Instructional Practice and Student
• Instructional Practices of WRSD
• Doing What Works - Proven Methods - No
Child Left Behind -
• Kansas Learning Strategies
• What is Quality Teaching?
• How to modify, construct, or select and conduct
nondiscriminatory and appropriate formal and
informal assessment procedures
• Teachers guide to special education assessment
• How to interpret standardized and specialized
assessment results
• How to use evaluation results for various
purposes, including monitoring IEP/ITP
• How to prepare written reports and
communicate findings to others
• If a fourth grade student has a grade equivalent score of
3.0 on a reading test, he correctly answered as many
questions on the test as the average beginning third
• Critical Issue: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in
Ways That Support Learning
• The standard deviation is the variability from the mean.
To calculate the standard deviation, you find the
difference of each score from the mean, square each
difference, average the squares and then take the square
root – this produces the standard deviation.
• In testing or assessments, validity refers to the ability
of the measurement to measure what it claims to
measure. The term reliability is used to when referring
to the repeatability and accuracy of a measurement.
• Aptitude is the undeveloped potential or ability.
• A discrepancy formula is used to establish a
discrepancy between a student’s measured IQ
and academic achievement and is used to
document a SLD (Specific Learning Disability).
• Curriculum based assessment is a method of
increasing the importance in special education
by measuring a student’s progress in the
curriculum at frequent levels.
Managing the Learning Environment
• Behavior management,
including behavior
analysisidentification and
definition of
antecedents, target
ABC Analysis
• and consequent
events; data gathering
• Anecdotal data
• Frequency
• Interval methods
• And selecting and
using behavioral
• Classroom
ment, including
providing appropriate
environment for
Classroom management and
Access and strategies for
positive interactions
• Transitions between lessons
and activities; grouping of
students; and effective and
efficient documentation
• Parent/teacher contacts
• Legal records
• A self-contained classroom is a special class for
specific types of disabled students who spend
the majority of the school day away from nondisabled students.
• Structure is the consistent use of rules, limits
and routines that reassures a student with
learning disabilities that the environment is
stable and predictable. Behavior Home Page
• IDEA requires school districts to provide
related services that a child needs in order to
benefit from the special education program,
with the exception of medical care which is not
for diagnostic purposes. Related services may
include speech and language pathology, audiology
services, psychological services, recreation,
physical and occupational therapy, early
identification and assessment, counseling,
rehabilitation counseling, school health services,
orientation and mobility services, social work
services, and/or parent counseling and training.
• Positive reinforcement is a behavior management
technique in which the addition of a stimulus after a
response that makes that response more likely to recur.
On the other hand, negative reinforcement is the removal
of a stimulus after a response which also makes that
response more likely to recur.
• Response cost is a behavior management technique that
consists of stating the cost for a specific misbehavior
before it occurs, implementing the penalty every time the
misbehavior occurs and combining this with a reward or
praising plan to tech or strengthen desired behaviors.
• One form of differential reinforcement is to decrease
inappropriate behavior by ignoring it and providing
reinforcement for positive behavior.
• Approaches to Learning and Teaching.doc
Professional Roles, Issues,
and Literature
• The teachers role as a multidisciplinary team
• Ways to consult/collaborate with others, in
school and outside
• Ways to work with teaching assistants in the
• Ways to participate in transition planning
• How to use professional literature and research
• The regular education teacher’s role as a
member of a multi-disciplinary team is to
present subject matter and instruction in
the classroom; to help develop, review and
revise the student’s IEP; to determine
appropriate positive behavioral
interventions and strategies; to help
determine supplementary aids, services
and program modifications; to identify
supports needed to help the student
progress; and generally to maintain
communication between the school and the
student’s home.
• Transition planning is part of the IEP for students
after they reach the age of 16 (or earlier if deemed
appropriate). Both parents/guardians and the student
are included in the transition planning process. The IEP
team may consist of the special education teacher, the
regular classroom teacher and other support personnel
and/or consultants. The superintendent would not
normally be party to this process.
• Section 300.506 states “Each public agency shall ensure
that procedures are established and implemented to
allow parties to disputes involving any matter described
in Sec. 300.503 (a) (1) to resolve the disputes through a
mediation process that, at a minimum, must be available
whenever a hearing is requested under Secs. 300.507 or
300.520-300.528.” Specific requirements of the
procedures are outlined.
• Get a Life Transition guide
• The Child Find component of IDEA requires states to
identify, locate and evaluate all children with disabilities
who are in need of early intervention or special
education services between the ages of birth to 21.
• A licensed school nurse is an important part of a special
education evaluation team. They may assist in
determining if a child meets the criteria for special
education by providing health assessments as needed,
reviewing health history and documentation of medical
diagnosis and identifying mental or physical health
conditions that may impact learning. Additionally, if a
child is eligible for special education services, related
services such as school health or nursing services may
be provided as part of the IEP.
• History of Special Education
• Special Education Laws
• CEC Code of Ethics
Education of Exceptional
Students: Core Content
Knowledge (0353)
• Content Categories:
• Understanding Exceptionalities
• Legal and Societal Issues
• Delivery of Services to Students with Disabilities
• This is a 60 minute assessment with 60 multiple
choice questions. This assessment is designed
for examinees who plan to teach students with
disabilities in preschool through grade 12.
Questions may address any disability from mild
to profound.
Understanding Exceptionalities
• Human development and behavior related
to students with disabilities, including
• Social and emotional development and
• Language development and behavior
• Cognition
• Physical development including motor and
• Characteristics of students with
disabilities, including the influence of
• Cognitive factors
• Affective and social adaptive factors,
including cultural, linguistic, gender, and
socioeconomic factors
• Genetic, medical, motor, sensory, and
chronological age factors
• developmental disorders
• Basic Concepts in special education, including
• Definitions of all major categories and specific
disabilities, including attention
deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as well as
the incidence and prevalence of various types of
• The causation and prevention of disability,
• The nature of behaviors, including the frequency,
duration, intensity, and degree of severity,
• The classification of students with disabilities, and
• The influence of level of severity and presence of
multiple exceptionalities on students with
• The influence of (an) exceptional condition(s)
throughout an individual’s life span.
Legal and Societal Issues
• Federal laws and legal issues related to
special education including
Public Law 94-142
Public Law 105-17
Section 504
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Important legal issues such as those raised by the
following cases:
Rowley re: program appropriateness
Tatro re: related services
Honing re: discipline
Oberti re: inclusion
• The school’s connections with the families,
prospective and actual employers, and
communities of students with disabilities, for
• Teacher advocacy for students and families,
developing student self advocacy
• Parent partnerships and roles
• Public attitudes toward individuals with disabilities
• Cultural and community influences toward
individuals with disabilities
• Interagency agreements
• Cooperative nature of the transition planning
• Historical movements/trends affecting
the connections between special
education and the larger society, for
• Deinstitutionalization and community based
• Inclusion
• Application of technology
• Transition
• Advocacy
• Accountability and meeting educational
Delivery of Services to
Students with Disabilities
• Background knowledge including
• Conceptual approaches underlying service delivery to
students with disabilities, including
Therapeutic (speech/language, physical and occupational)
Medical approaches
• Placement and program issues such as
early intervention;
least restrictive environment;
role of individualized education programs (IEP) team;
due process guidelines;
categorical, non-categorical and cross- categorical
continuum of educational and related services;
related services and their integration into the
classroom, including roles of other professionals;
accommodations, including access to assistive
transition of students into and within special education
community-based training;
post-school transitions
• Integrating best practices from
multidisciplinary research and professional
literature into the educational setting
• Curriculum and instruction and their implication
across the continuum of educational
placements, including
• The individualized family service plan
(IFSP)/individualized education program (IEP)
• Instructional development and implementation, for
Instructional activities
Curricular materials and resources
Working with classroom and support personnel
Tutoring options
• Teaching strategies and methods, for example:
Modification of materials and equipment
Learning centers
Facilitated groups
Study skills
Cooperative learning
Diagnostic-prescriptive method
Skill drill
Guided practice
Concept generalization
Learning strategy instruction
Direct instruction
• Instructional format and components, for
• Small and large group instruction
• Facilitated group strategies
• Functional academic with focus on special
• ESL and limited English proficiency
• Language and literacy acquisition
• Self-care and daily living skills
• Prevocational and vocational skills
• Career development and transition issues as
related to curriculum design and
implementation for students with disabilities
according to the criteria of ultimate
• Technology for teaching and learning in
special education setting, for example:
• Integrating assistive technology into the
• Computer-assisted instruction
• Augmentative and alternative communication
• Adaptive access for microcomputers
• Positioning and power mobility for students with
physical disabilities
• Accessing and using information technology
• Use of productivity tools
• Technology for sensory disabilities
• Voice activated, speech-recognition and word
prediction software
• Assessment, including
• Use of assessment for screening, diagnosis, placement, and the
making of instructional decisions, for example:
• How to select and conduct nondiscriminatory and appropriate
• How to interpret standardized and specialized assessment results
• How to effectively use evaluation results in individualized family
service plan (IFSP)/individualized education program (IEP)
• How to prepare written reports and communicate findings
• Procedures and test materials, both formal and informal typically
used for pre-referral, screening, referral, classification,
placement, and ongoing program monitoring
• How to select, construct, conduct and modify nondiscriminatory,
developmentally and chronologically age-appropriate informal
assessment and alternatives to norm-referenced testing
(including observations, anecdotal records, error analysis, miscue
analysis, self-evaluation questionnaires and interviews, journal and
learning logs, portfolio assessment)
• Structuring and managing the learning
environment, including
• Structuring the learning environment, for
• the physical social environment for learning
(expectations, rules, consequences, consistency,
attitudes, lighting, acoustics characteristics,
seating, access, safety provisions and strategies
for positive interactions);
• transitions between lessons and activities;
• grouping of students; integration of related
services (occupational therapy, physical therapy,
speech and language therapy)
• Classroom management techniques, for
• Behavioral analysis (identification and definition
of antecedents, target behaviors and
• Behavioral interventions
• Functional analysis
• Data gathering procedures(such as anecdotal
data, frequency methods, and interval methods)
• Self management strategies and reinforcement
• Cognitive behavioral interventions
• Social skills training
• Ethical considerations inherent in behavior
• Professional roles, including
• Specific roles and responsibilities of teachers, for
example: teacher as a collaborator with other
teachers, teacher educators, parents, community
groups, and outside agencies
• Teacher as a multidisciplinary team member
• Maintaining effective and efficient documentation
• Selecting appropriate environments and services for
• Critical evaluation and use of professional literature
and organizations
• Reflecting on ones own teaching
• Teachers role in a variety of settings (self-contained
classroom, resource room, itinerant, co-teacher in
inclusion setting, etc.)
• Maintaining student confidentiality
• Influences of teacher attitudes, values and
behaviors on the learning of exceptional
• Communicating with parents, guardians and
appropriate community collaboration, for
• Directing parents and guardians to parent-educators
or to other groups and resources
• Writing reports directly to parents
• Meeting with parents to discuss student concerns,
progress and IEP’s encouraging parent participation
• Reciprocal communication and training with other
service providers
Special Education: Teaching Students
with Behavioral/Emotional Disturbance
• Six content areas are covered in the examination
general knowledge of exceptionalities;
characteristics of students with emotional disturbances;
assessment, evaluation and placement;
instructional procedures and methods;
classroom management and
legal/ethical considerations.
• This is a 50 question multiple choice assessment
that allows 60 minutes for completion.
General Knowledge of
• Basic concepts, including characteristics of
students with behavioral disorders/emotional
disturbance, such as psychological
characteristics (for example, neuroses,
psychoses, anxiety, depression);
• ADHD PowerPoint
• Neuroses, Psychoses, anxiety and depression
• Teaching Approaches
• affective characteristics (for example, socialemotional development, interpersonal skills);
• Blooms Taxonomy Affective domain
• adaptive/ maladaptive behavioral
characteristics (for example, selfinjurious behavior, eating disorders,
substance abuse, aggression, social
maladjustment, conduct disorders,
• the relationship between behavior
disorders/emotional disturbance and
distractibility, hyperactivity, and
impulsivity; and
• causation and prevention (for example,
environmental factors, cultural factors,
genetic factors, neurological factors)
• Definitions/terminology related to
behavioral disorders/ emotional
disturbance (for example, federal
definition [IDEA]; professional
organizations’ definitions [DSM CEC])
‚óŹ Professional roles/issues/
• literature, such as public attitudes toward
individuals with behavioral
disorders/emotional disturbance;
• the teacher’s role as promoter of advocacy
(for example, helping parents become
advocates for their children, developing
student self-advocacy, advocating for
students’ families and for educational change);
• the teacher’s responsibility in cases of
suspected abuse or neglect;
• the use of professional literature/
organizations and formal published
research for improving classroom
practice and reflecting on one’s own
• influences of teacher attitudes and
expectations on student achievement and
behavior; and ways to work with healthrelated service and social service
Assessment, including how to
• modify, construct, or select and conduct
nondiscriminatory and appropriate informal and
formal assessment procedures,
• how to interpret standardized and specialized
assessment results,
• how to use evaluation results in IEP/ITP
development, and how to prepare written
reports and communicate findings to others
Placement and program issues,
• including ways to apply a continuum of
alternative placements and related
services (for example, early intervention,
support systems, least restrictive
environment, REI, mainstreaming,
integration, and inclusion);
• how to participate in the IEP/ITP
processes in a manner that is responsive
to cultural and community influences;
• how to identify, develop, or adapt and use
appropriate instructional materials;
• Lesson Planning
• how to work with classroom personnel and
external resources;
• how to display awareness of students’
abilities and aptitudes and use
appropriate alternative methods for
instruction, evaluation, and grading (for
example, through peer-group tutoring and
instructional techniques)
Curriculum and instruction,
• including determining current levels of
performance, determining instructional needs,
identifying appropriate related services and
modifications of standard educational practice,
establishing effective data collection;
• preparing legally correct IEP/ITP instructional
goals and objectives; selecting chronologically
and developmentally age-appropriate
instructional activities and materials; using
appropriate planning and sequencing of
instructional strategies;
• using data-based decision-making to select
from varied teaching strategies and methods,
including direct instruction, cooperative
learning, task analysis, diagnostic-prescriptive
methods, and applied behavior analysis; and
• using varied instructional formats and
components, including motivation, modeling, drill
and practice, demonstration, corrective
feedback, and reinforcement with individuals
and with small and large groups, as appropriate
Instructional Procedures and
• How to manage the learning environment,
including using behavior management, behavior
analysis (such as identification and definition
of antecedents, target behavior, consequent
events); data-gathering procedures; selecting
and using behavioral interventions (for
example, approaches to changing behaviors,
such as behavioral, cognitive behavioral, and
affective, degrees of intrusiveness);
• Classroom Management Strategies for
Effective Instruction.ppt
Classroom Management
• using classroom organization/management;
providing the appropriate physical-social
environment for learning (such as expectations,
rules, consequences, consistency, attitudes,
lighting, seating, access, strategies for positive
• Classroom management and organization
• planning transitions between lessons and
activities; grouping students; and maintaining
effective and
Legal and Ethical
• efficient documentation (such as
parent/teacher contacts and legal
• CEC link on IDEA
Education of Exceptional Students:
Mild to Moderate Disabilities (0542)
• Content Categories:
• Assessment
• Curriculum and Instruction
• Structure and Managing the Learning Environment
• This is a one hour test made up of 5 constructed
response questions. The questions access the ability
to apply the principles of special education to
situations that a teacher is likely to encounter in
working with students with mild to moderate
disabilities in Preschool through 12th grade.
Six Types of Constructed
Response Questions
• The six kinds of stimulus material for the
questions are:
• Charts graphs and tables
• Illustrations, cartoons, maps and other visuals
• Passages taken from relevant content area primary
source materials
• Statements of theory and research findings
• Mathematical or scientific problems
• Examples of students work
Strategies for Success
• Answer all parts of the question. Use
your pencil to mark all requirements in
the test booklet.
• Answer the question only to the degree
• Look first at the question and then at the
stimulus materials.
Power Verbs for Testing
• Make sure you are familiar with questions
which include the following verbs:
•Use examples
•Give reasons
•Be specific
• Demonstrate knowledge of
specialized policies regarding
Pre-referral strategies
Placement procedures for individuals
with mild to moderate disabilities
• Demonstrate knowledge of assessment
for eligibility:
• Instruments and methods both formal and
informal (e.g. ecological inventories,
portfolio, functional, and assistive
technology assessments) used to determine
eligibility for special education services,
with consideration given to
Modality preferences
Level of support and/or independence
Accommodations for test taking situations
Cultural and linguistic diversity
• Demonstrates knowledge of assessment
for instruction:
• How to design and adapt assessments, both
formal and informal, to use in developing
instruction for individuals with mild to
moderate disabilities, with consideration
given to:
Modality preferences
Level of support and/or independence
Accommodations for test taking situations
Cultural and linguistic diversity
• How to utilize assessment information in
developing instruction for mild to
moderate disabilities in both specialized
and general education settings in both
• Academic domains (e.g. mathematics,
reading, writing, social studies, science, art,
music, vocational and
• Behavioral domains (e.g. social skills,
listening skills, communication skills, selfmanagement skills, prevocational skills)
Curriculum and Instruction
• Demonstrate knowledge of how to
evaluate, select, and develop
curriculum materials appropriate for
individuals with mild to moderate
disabilities, with sensitivity to
cultural and linguistic diversity and
adaptations and accommodations for
individuals with mild to moderate
• Demonstrate knowledge of how to use
local, community, and state resources to
assist in developing programs for
individuals who are likely to make
progress in the general curriculum.
• Demonstrate knowledge of how to write
appropriate IEP goals and objectives for
students with mild to moderate
disabilities in
• Academic domains (including vocational)
• Behavioral domains
Structuring and Managing the
Learning Environment
• Demonstrate knowledge of behavior
• How to implement systematic behavior management
plans using
Establishment of timelines
Hierarchies of interventions
Schedules of reinforcement
• How to select target behaviors to be changed and
identify the critical variables affecting the target
• Demonstrates knowledge of problem
solving and conflict resolution
• Demonstrates knowledge of how to
integrate related services into the
instructional setting of students with
mild to moderate disabilities
• Demonstrates knowledge of how to
collaborate with others (including both
personnel and families) in planning and
providing instruction for students with
mild to moderate disabilities