Page 1 BGLZ Services to Industry Plumbing Study Guide Level 1 Page 2 INDEX SECTION SUBJECT PAGES 1 Safety signs 2-3 2 Risk assessment 4-5 3 Personal Protective Equipment 6 4 ‘X’ dimension 7 5 Defining unequal tee 8 6 Copper pipe bender 9 7 Copper parallel offset 135° 10-13 8 Copper parallel offset 90° 14-15 9 Passover ‘A’ 16-18 10 Plumbing symbols 19-21 11 Push-fit 22-24 12 Compression fitting 25-26 13 Plumbing components 27-30 14 Tool identification 31-32 15 LCS bending 33-34 16 LCS 90° bend 35-36 17 LCS 90° parallel offset 37-38 18 LCS 135° parallel 19 Waste pipe 20 Soil pipe 39 40-42 43 Page 3 Safety Signs Example Identification Round shape. White pictogram on a blue background. The blue part to take up at least 50% of the area of the sign. Description Mandatory sign is a sign prescribing specific behaviour, they are mainly used to tell you what you must do, particularly where you have to wear specifically PPE (eg eye protection) The prescribed behaviour of this sign must be followed. Round shape. Black pictogram on white background. Red edging and diagonal line. The red part to take up at least 35% of the area of the sign. Prohibition sign is a sign prohibiting behaviour likely to increase or cause danger (eg no smoking) The prescribed behaviour of this sign must not be done. Hazard Warning Triangular shape. a sign giving warning of a hazard or Black picture with at least danger (eg danger: electricity) 50% yellow background. These signs Alert you to possible dangers Safe condition Rectangular shape. White picture on a green background. a sign giving advice (e.g. fire exits, first aid, ) These signs Inform you about safe practices or procedures. Page 4 COSHH (Control Health) Square shape. Black pictogram on orange background. of Substance Hazardous to Sign warns you about the properties of a chemical or substance. (e.g. flammable substance) These signs Inform you about the potential harmful properties of the material. These signs are British and are being phased out. GHS / GHL Diamond shape. Black pictogram on a white background with a red border. (Global Harmonised Harmonised Label) Sign / Global Sign warns you about the properties of a chemical or substance. (e.g. flammable substance) These signs replace COSHH signs and are international; introduced because of global sales. Page 5 RISK ASSESSMENT Risk assessments are a very important part of the safety system in any environment. We perform informal risk assessments many times every day; when we cross a road or when we drive a car, etc. In a work environment there is an increased number of hazards made more dangerous by lack of experience of new employees. Add unseen hazards and a rush to get the job done and the chance of an accident increases exponentially. Get into the habit of keeping your eyes open and being aware of your environment, this will increase your chances of seeing a hazardous situation before it becomes dangerous. It is your legal duty if you see a hazard to do something about it, whether it is raise you concerns to someone in charge or actively correct / rectify the hazard. Once you have corrected the hazard you should report it as a ‘near miss’ even though no one was hurt time if the situation is repeated the next person might not be so lucky. There are times that you will have to do a more formal written risk assessment most will have a form to follow, fill out the information asked for, if in doubt ask. The following chart shows you how the college rate the risk we use a high, medium and low system other companies used a 1 to 5 system 1 being the lowest risk and 5 being the highest. Companies that use a number system will specify the number at which the risk is acceptable or not. The reality of work is we cannot remove all risk from life; but we can minimize it and dramatically reduce the consequences if something does go wrong. Some risks are just not acceptable! Page 6 How to Rate Risks Likelihood TERM DEFINITION High Would be expected to occur more than once - people are exposed to the hazard continuously - the hazard is difficult to see - the hazard is encountered during adverse environmental conditions Medium Low Would be expected to occur once - if the control measures provided depend on individuals using them or adjusting them on every occasion May possibly occur - if control measures are included that do not depend on individuals adjusting them, or if training is provided and regularly repeated. Severity TERM DEFINITION High Multiple major injuries, single severe / disabling injury or Occupational illness Medium RIDDOR major injury per event resulting in more than three days absence from work Low Injury requiring medical attention and leading to absence from work up to three days Risk Matrix Severity Likelihood High Medium Low High High High Medium Medium High Medium Low Low Medium Low Low Risk Rating TERM DEFINITION High Review urgently required determining whether the risk can be removed, reduced, or controlled. Medium Risk not acceptable, hazards and controls need investigation to consider reasonable and practical improvements. Low Acceptable Page 7 PPE Before you start any work activity you must make sure, you are wearing / using the appropriate safety equipment and are following all of the workshop rules. Personal Protective Equipment (P.P.E.) MUST be worn at all times in the workshop. Remember that PPE does not make you invulnerable! It is to protect you in case something goes wrong. List the PPE use in the workshop / trade; detail what it protects you from. PPE What does it protect you from Name two situations that would make the clothing or equipment unsuitable for use? 1. ________________________________________________________ 2. ________________________________________________________ In addition to wearing your P.P.E. YOU must make sure that the Local Exhaust Ventilation (L.E.V.) is turned on when soldering in the workshop. REPORT ANY DAMAGED EQUIPMENT TO YOUR TUTOR IMMEDIATELY Page 8 ‘X’ Dimension A B When joining copper pipe we take our measurements from the centre of the pipes. When joining pipes with fitting we must be aware of the ‘X’ dimension. This is the difference between the centre of the fitting and the end of the fitting A and the amount of pipe that fits into the fitting B. To find the ‘X’ dimension measure distance A and B, then subtract B from A to find the X dimension. Once we have the X dimension for each end of the pipe and the distance between centres, all we have to do is subtract the total X dimension from the pipe length and we know how long our pipe needs to be. e.g. Dimension A = 20mm Dimension B =12mm X dimension = A – B (20 – 12) X dimension = 8mm Therefore if you were producing a piece of pipe work with two tees and the pipe centres off the branches were given as 300mm you would subtract the X dimension from the measurement (times 2 one for each end) giving you a measurement of 300mm – (8 x 2) = 284mm. Remember to check the X dimensions of each of the connections on a tee as they are often different; they also change from manufacture to manufacturer Page 9 Defining Unequal Tee There are times in plumbing when we need to connect pipes of different diameters we can use reducers or unequal fittings. When describing unequal tees there is a specific way of doing it; the branch (the connection coming off the side) is the last measurement given. e.g. Fitting 1 would be a 22-15-15mm unequal tee. Fitting 2 would be a 28-28-15mm unequal tee. Fitting 3 would be a 22-15-22mm unequal tee. 1 . 2 3 . . Page 10 Pipe Bending 1 2 3 4 1. 2. 3. 4. When bending copper pipe through 90° we place our mark on the pipe where we want the centre of the bend. Place the pipe in the bender aligning the mark using a square or piece of pipe. Place a pencil mark on the pipe where it sits in the tube former this makes sure if the pipe is removed from the bender it goes back in the correct place. Bend the pipe checking it as you get close to the 90° it is better to under bend than over bend. Page 11 Parallel Offset When bending copper pipes at angles less than 90° we place the mark between the 1 and the 5 of the 15 on the tube former. With a little practice this method is more than accurate enough for our plumbing needs. When bending offsets it is important to know the shortest distance that can be bent in the bender; this will affect the sizes of the offsets and passovers. Experiment with the bender and make a note of the minimum length of pipe that can be bent. Minimum length of pipe 15mm ________________________ 22mm ________________________ The distance between the two centres is the off-set Page 12 First lay out your drawing. Draw two parallel lines the required distance apart; either from a drawing or from your direct measurements. Now draw the angle of the offset; the angle will either come from the drawing or be dictated by the minimum length that you can bend in the bender. Using a sharp pencil of fine tipped permanent marker mark the location of the first bend on your pipe. 1 Place the pipe in the pipe in the bender aligning the mark between the 1 and the 5 of the 15mm. . Gradually pull the first bend. Draw a line on the pipe where it sits in the pipe former this will allow you to put the pipe back in the correct place if you need to bend it again; remember it is better to under bend than over bend. 2 . 3 . Place your bend on your pattern; if it needs more bending put it back into the bender and bend it until the angle is correct. Place the pipe on top of the line of your pattern align it with the base and angle line. Where the pipe crosses the second parallel line of your pattern, mark a line at 90° to the axis of the pipe. Page 13 Place your pipe into the bender aligning the new mark with the same position between the 15mm. Make sure the second bend is in the correct direction. Finally before you start to pull the second bend check the alignment of the bend; you need both bends in the same plane. Check the final bend against your pattern. When starting you can make mistakes; learn from each mistake do not repeat them. Look back over the work to see where you went wrong and correct the error on the next attempt. 4 . 5 . When bending offsets in 22mm pipe there is no mark like the ‘15mm’; this can make getting the bend in the correct position difficult. One way around this is to mark your pipe as before then place a second mark 46mm back from the first. Place this mark against the back of the pipe former; this will give you the bend in the position you want. Page 14 An alternative method of marking the pipe out for bending is to produce the drawing as before. 6 Place the pipe on the drawing and scribe a line on the pipe following the line of plan. . There are times when you use a pipe bender that do not have the 15mm mark on the former; or the mark might be in a different place. This is when you can use this method. Place the pipe into the bender aligning the mark with the radius of the former. You could use a rule or other straight edge to do this. This method is equally accurate. Experiment with both methods see which you prefer. As long as the method you chose is accurate and repeatable. Page 15 90° Parallel Offset First draw two parallel lines; the distance between them is the required offset. 1 . Then draw a third line at 90° to the first two lines towards the middle of the two lines. 90° 2 . Bend the first 90° bend using a square or piece of pipe to align it in the bender. Place the bend on the drawing align the pipe with the base and the middle line. Mark a line on the pipe following the line of the drawing. 3 . Measure down one pipe diameter and mark a second line. 4 . Place the pipe back in the bender; align the second mark using a square or piece of pipe. Before you start the bend make sure the two bends are in line. Page 16 The offset should sit on the drawing with the bottom of the pipe sitting on the top of both lines of the pattern. Page 17 Passover ‘A’ There are times when you will need to pipes to cross paths, when this happens we use a Passover ‘A’. Measurements for the Passover are determined by the size of the pipe that needs to be passed over. To start the layout drawing first draw a straight line. Then draw a second line approximately half way along the line at 90° to the first line. Now mark the distance required for the Passover on the second line. 1 . The distance is the diameter of the pipe plus a clearance of between 15-20mm. In this case the distance is 30mm (15mm for the pipe and 15mm for the clearance) Place an offcut of pipe on this mark and draw around it. Page 18 Now mark the minimum distance that you can bend in the bender either side of the middle line; in this case 80-90mm Using your off cut of pipe draw two more circles on the bottom line centred on the marks you have just drawn. 2 . Using a sharp pencil of fine tipped permanent marker mark the location of the first bend on your pipe. 1 . Place the pipe in the pipe in the bender aligning the mark between the 1 and the 5 of the 15mm. Gradually pull the first bend. 2 . Draw a line on the pipe where it sits in the pipe former this will allow you to put the pipe back in the correct place if you need to bend it again; remember it is better to under bend than over bend. Place your bend on your pattern; if it needs more bending put it back into the bender and bend it until the angle is correct. Align the bend with the centre mark on your central line and the three circles should be covered by the pipe. Where the pipe crosses base line of your pattern, mark two line at 90° to the axis of the pipe. The mark on the right side needs to be scribed completely around the pipe. Page 19 Place your pipe into the bender aligning the new mark with the same position between the 15mm. Make sure the second bend is in the correct direction. Finally before you start to pull the second bend check the alignment of the bend; you need both bends in the same plane. Remember this bend is only half that of the first bend, it is very shallow bend. Turn the pipe around and place it back into the bender aligning the new mark with the same position between the 15mm. Make sure the second bend is in the correct direction. Finally before you start to pull the second bend check the alignment of the bend; you need both bends in the same plane. At you start to bend look down the pipe keep bending until the two ends of the pipe are aligned. Finally place the passover on the pattern making sure it is in line and the circles are covered. When starting you can make mistakes; learn from each mistake do not repeat them. Look back over the work to see where you went wrong and correct the error on the next attempt. Page 20 PLUMBING SYMBOLS When working on some sites and industrial installations, drawings of the plumbing system will be used. The components will be represented with symbols. It is important that you recognize the symbols for components as fitting the wrong component could have serious consequences. Page 21 Page 22 WATER GAS Page 23 Push-Fit 1 2 3 4 5 6 . . . . . . Component name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What it does Page 24 2 1 . . Inside the push fit fitting there are two sealing components; The black ‘O’ ring is one of the main seals that stops the fitting from leaking. This seal goes into the fitting first. The blue washer holds the black ‘O’ ring in place applying an even clamping pressure. The pipe is cut to length; if you can cut the pipe to one of the marks on the pipe this will help you when it comes to assembly. If you cannot cut the pipe on one of the marks make a note of the distance apart the marks are. Insert the insert. Before assembling the fitting add a small amount of lubricant to the end of the pipe; when new the fitting would be lubricated but when they are reused the lubricant is worn off. The lubricant allows the pipe to slip easily into the fitting. Hold the pipe in one hand and the fitting with the other and push firmly. There should be a positive feeling as the pipe slips into its correct position. Notice the mark is now right up against the locking ring. If the pipe is not pushed in this far then it will leak. Page 25 When dismantling the joint you need to separate the pipe form the fitting by overcoming the locking ring. Hold the fitting in one hand with your index finger on one side of the locking ring. With your other hand grip the pipe with your thumb against the other side of the locking ring. Simultaneously pull back on your finger, push with your thumb and pull with your hand that is holding the pipe. Sometimes the insert will stay in the pipe when it comes out of the fitting. If it does remove the insert and return it and the pipe to the appropriate place. Often the insert will become detached and remain in the fitting. When this happens unscrew the nut from the fitting. You will now see the insert and sealing rings ‘stuck’ in the fitting. Remove the insert and sealing rings from the fitting. Immediately reassemble the fitting with the seals in the correct order; if you do not and one or both of the seals goes missing the fitting will become useless. Page 26 Compression Fitting 1 . Component name 1. 2. 3. 4. 2 3 4 . . What it does Page 27 Assemble the fitting, make sure all of the olives are in place and are new. Once an olive has been used it should not be used again. Push the pipe into the fitting ensuring it is all the way in and tighten the nut. Use two spanners to tighten the nut; the first spanner is placed on the nut the second spanner is placed on the flat on the body of the fitting. As the nut tightens it squeezes the olive onto the pipe; the tight fit between the nut, fitting and olive is water and gas tight. 1 . Do not over tighten the nut as this can over squeeze the olive causing it to leak and weaken the pipe. When fitting a compression fitting in a property a jointing compound can be used; this allows for any expansion and contraction between the pipe and fitting. When disassembling the joint remove the nut and withdraw the pipe from the fitting; the olive should be secure on the pipe. You can try and remove the nut by sliding an adjustable spanner along the pipe knocking it off the pipe. If the olive is still stuck on the pipe use a pipe cutter or junior hack saw to remove a small section of pipe holding the olive. In industry you can buy an olive splitter and olive puller; these remover the olive without damaging the pipe. This allows the joint to be remade with a new olive without renewing the pipe work. Page 28 Fittings Identification Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Tool Identification Page 33 Page 34 LCS Bending 1 . 2 . 3 . Low Carbon Steel (LCS) sometimes called iron pipe is much more ridged than copper pipe; this makes it harder to bend. To bend LCS pipe we use a hydraulic bender. The bender uses a hand operated hydraulic ram to push the former and bend the pipe. Because LCS is more ridged it does not require a back guide along its entire length two guide roles are used instead. 4 . 5 . Component name 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What it does Page 35 First select the correct former for the size of pipe you are bending. The formers are marked on both sides; The one side is metric the other side is imperial. The size refers to the internal diameter (ID). That is why the equivalent LCS pipe is larger than its copper counterpart. Place the former on the spigot on top of the hydraulic ram. 1 Close the pressure release valve at the base of the ram by turning it clockwise using the end of the pumping handle. . Once the pipe has been placed in to the former and adjusted to the correct position the ram is pumped first tacking up the slack and then bending the pipe. Place the pumping handle into the pumping socket and pump the handle back and forth to move the ram. Because the LCS pipe is more ridged it needs to be over bent by approximately 5° this allows for ‘spring back’ when the bending force is removed. 2 . To remove the pipe from the bender using the pumping handle turn the pressure release valve anti-clock wise until the ram starts to return. Page 36 90° LCS Bending 3 . 4 . Place your pipe on the pattern; mark a line across the pipe in line with the top line of your drawing. Mark a second line on the pipe one pipe diameter (internal diameter / nominal bore) down. This second mark is the mark that you place in the bender. Place the pipe in the bender aligning the second mark with the centre of the former. Pump the handle until the pipe is bent to the 90° angle. Place the bend back on the pattern to check the offset and bend. Notice that the top line of the pattern is in the centre of the pipe as measurements are taken pipe centre to pipe centre. Page 37 When bending larger diameter pipe you need to move the two guide rolls further apart. 5 . This increases the radius of the bend. If the radius is too tight the pipe can buckle or even collapse. To move the guide rolls; 6 Remove the retaining pin. . Hold the guide roll in one hand. Withdraw the pin. 7 . 8 . To install the guide roll hold the roll where you want it to go. Insert the pin. Then fit the retaining pin. Page 38 90° LCS Offset Produce a pattern of the bend. Produce the first 90° as previously shown. . Place the first bend onto the pattern; (note the pipe is below the line) mark the pipe where the top line crosses it. 2 Then mark a second mark ½ the OD + 1 x ID. 1 . e.g. 15mm pipe 15mm pipe ID = 15mm 15mm pipe OD = 21.5mm Therefore the mark will be 15 + 21.5 = 25.75𝑚𝑚 2 This can be rounded to 26mm When the pipe is marked place it in to the bender, aligning the second mark with the centre of the bending former. Before you start bending make sure the first bend is vertical. Start bending. Take up the slack in the hydraulic ram then check the alignment of the pipe, pump the jacking handle a one or two times and check the alignment again as it can move during the first part of the bend. Page 39 When you have bent the pip place it on to the patter and check the bend is correct. Remember it is easier to bend the pipe a little bit more, than to try and unbend it. When complete the pipe should line up with all of the lines on the pattern. Page 40 135° LCS Offset First lay out your drawing. Draw two parallel lines the required distance apart; either from a drawing or from your direct measurements. Now draw the angle of the offset; the angle will either come from the drawing or be dictated by the minimum length that you can bend in the bender. Produce your first bend. Place the bend on your pattern above the bottom line; aligning it with the two lines. Strike a mark at 90° to the pipe where the pipe crosses the top line. Check the finished bend against your pattern. If it needs to be bent any more put it back into the bender. Remember it is easier to bend the pipe a little bit more, than to try and unbend it. When complete the pipe should line up with all of the lines on the pattern. Page 41 Waste Pipe Waste pipe transports waste water from the bath, basin, shower, sink etc. the pipe comes is many sizes some of the more common sizes are 32mm, 40mm, 50mm. Waste pipe also comes in different forms this denotes how it is joined together the types of waste pipe are Push fit, Compression and solvent weld. Push-fit tends to be for DIY use as it is easy to assemble. Solvent weld is a professional method of assembling waste pipe; it is permanent and rarely leaks. Compression is typically used to attach items such as traps, self-sealing valves, etc. compression fittings can also be used as a union in solvent weld pipe. Identify the following type of fittings . Page 42 Waste pipe can be marked with a pencil or fine tipped marker. To cut the pipe to size traditionally a saw would have been used. Today you can get waste pipe cutters that look like oversized pipe slices; these have the advantage of cutting square and leaving no shavings. Methods of pipe cutting Hack saw Plastic pipe slice Pipe slice in action However you cut the pipe the end of the pipe will need to be prepared prior to assembly; all of the pipes will need to de-burred internally as burrs can snag hair and other waste leading to blockages. The push-fit and compression pipe should be further prepared by chamfering the end of the pipe; this has two benefits firstly it makes assembly easier, secondly the chamfer allows the pipe to be inserted into the fitting without dislodging or damaging the seal Modern Chamfering Tool The tool External chamfering tool Internal chamfering tool Page 43 Once the pipe has been cut and prepped it needs to be lightly lubricated before fitting it into the fitting this allows it to fit together easily. When connecting solvent weld pipe the pipe is cut and internally de-burred as above; the end of the pipe is then cleaned with a solvent to remove any grease or dirt that would interfere with the gluing process. Solvent weld is then applied to both the outside pipe and the inside of the fitting; there is a very short curing time so the components should be fitted together quickly once set the connection is permanent and cannot be readjusted. An important factor to note is the design of the waste tees. These are called swept tees because the branch ‘sweeps’ into the main connection; this is to allow the water to flow freely through the system. As a result the swept tee has three different ‘x’ dimension measurements 2 3 . . 1 . It is also important to consider the flow of water through the system when installing a swept tee; if the tee is installed upside down it will impede the flow of water. Page 44 Soil Pipe Soil pipe transports the waste water and foul water from w/c and bidet; it comes in a variety of sizes including 75mm 110mm 150mm. Soil pipe comes in two main colours grey and brown. Colour Where is it used Grey Brown Soil pipe fittings come in push-fit and solvent weld. The push-fit soil pipe can be considered as an oversized push-fit waste pipe; it can be cut with a hand saw or propriety cutter. The end of the pipe needs to be de-burred and chamfered and lubricated prior to assembly. Methods of pipe cutting Hand saw Manual stand mounted cutter Cordless pipe cutter Soil pipe needs to chamfered if using push-fit fittings; if the cut is done with a hand saw the chamfering is often done with a rasp (very course file) the other two pipe cutting methods shown above both chamfer the pipe as part of the cutting process.