Financing International Trade work sheet

Financing International Trade activity
This combines the topics exchange rates and balance of payments. Let us try and make sense of it all.
Trade involves imports and __________as well as dealings with the ___________________of the countries involved. Let
us start with an IBLAND exporter Muhammad Kara, a lifelong Arsenal supporter who has gotten used to Arsenal’s lack of
trophies. When he exports his products to Canada, he wants to be paid in IBLAND currency (Dukesh, ¥), but the
Canadian importer; Susie Cui uses ___________________ (CAD$). They must exchange IBLAND dollars for Canadian
dollars before the export transaction can occur. This exchange takes place in the foreign exchange market
Assumptions in this model
IBland exporter (MK) agrees to sell ¥400,000 of oil equipment to Canadian importer (SC).
The rate of exchange is ¥2.00 for $1.00. This means that the Canadian importer (SC) must pay the equivalent of
$________, to the IBLAND EXPORTER (MK) to obtain the ¥400,000.00 worth of equipment.
SC conducts all her financial transaction with Bank of Montreal
Transaction costs are zero
IBLAND export transaction
1. SC draws a cheque of $______________________ on its chequing account from BMO and sends it to MK
2. MK must pay for its bills in Dukesh, not dollars, so he has to sell the $200,000.00 to the Zyhlo bank in
IBLAND, which is a dealer in foreign exchange. This bank adds ¥400,000.00 in MK account for the
$_____________________ cheque
3. The Zyhlo Bank deposits the corresponding $___________________ cheque in a corresponding Canadian
Bank for future sale to some IBLAND buyer who needs dollars
Note this important point: IBLAND exports create a foreign demand for Dukesh, and the fulfillment of that demand
increases the supply of foreign currencies, CAD$ in this case, owned by IBLAND banks and available to IBLAND residents.
IBLAND import transaction
1. An IBLAND importer Austin Le purchases $CAD200, 000.00 by writing a cheque for ¥________________ on its
IBLAND Zyhlo Bank. He wants to import Ipods
2. He then sends this cheque of $___________________ to the Canadian Firm which deposits it in a Canadian
Note that the IBLAND import create a domestic ___________________for foreign currencies, CAD$ in this case, and the
fulfillment of this demand reduces the supplies of foreign currencies (again CAD$) held by IBLAND banks and available to
IBLAND consumers.
The combined export and import transactions bring one more point in focus. IBLAND exports (The oil equipment) make
available, or earn a supply of foreign currencies for IBLAND banks and IBLAND imports (the IPODS), create a demand for
those currencies. In a broad sense, any nations exports finance or pay for its imports. Exports provide the
_______________currencies needed to pay for ___________________.
Although we have looked at the exporting and importing of goods, demand for and supplies of CAD$ also arise from
transactions involving services and the payments of interest and dividends on foreign investments. IBLAND demands
dollars to buy insurance and transportation services from Canada, to vacations in Toronto, Vancouver and Alberta.
The Balance of payment
IBLAND’s Balance of Payment 2010 in Billions
Current Account
Merchandise exports
Merchandise imports
Balance of Trade***
Exports of services
Imports of services
Balance on goods and services***
Net investment income
Net transfers
Current account balance
Capital and Financial accounts
10. Net change in foreign
Investment in IBLAND
(capital inflow)
11. Net change in IBLAND
Investment abroad
(capital outflow)
12. Capital account balance
Official settlement accounts
13. Official international reserves
Balance of payments…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...0
A nations Balance of payment is the sum of all transactions that take place between its residents and the residents of all
foreign nations. The table above is a simplified balance of payment statement for IBLAND. What are the numbers above
telling us?
Current account
Exports are treated as a credit (+ sign) because they earn and make available foreign exchange in IBLAND
Imports are treated as debit (- sign) because they reduces the stock of foreign currencies in IBLAND
Balance on goods is the difference between its exports and imports of goods and services. If exports exceed imports, the
result is a trade surplus. If imports exceed exports, the result is a trade deficit…balance on goods and services =balance
of trade
Balance on current account
Item 7, net investment, represents the difference between interest and dividend payments people abroad have paid
IBLAND for the services of exported IBLAND capital and what IBlandians paid in interest and dividends for the use of
foreign capital invested in IBLAND. The figure demonstrates that IBLAND paid more in interest and dividends to people
abroad that what they received.
Item 8 shows net transfers both public and private, between IBLAND and the rest of the World. These include foreign
aid, pensions paid to citizens living abroad, funds received from home by international students and remittances by
immigrants to relatives abroad.
Item 9 is an addition of all transaction in the current account = current account balance= surplus of 30.2
Capital and Financial Account
This account summarizes the flows of money capital from the purchase or sale of real or financial assets. For example,
foreign firm may buy a real asset; say an office tower in IBLAND or a financial asset, for instance an IBLAND government
bond. Both kinds of transactions involve the ‘export’ of ownership of IBLAND assets from IBLAND in return for
inpayments of foreign currency money. As indicated in line 10, these exports of ownerships of assets are designated net
change in foreign investments in IBLAND.
Conversely, a IBLAND firm may buy say a ranch in Alberta or common stock of a foreign firm. Both transactions involve
imports of the ownership of real or financial assets to IBLAND and are paid for by outpayments of IBLAND currency.
These imports are designated (see line 11)
Items 10 and 11 combined yield a capital account balance of -22.2 billion (line 12). In 2010 IBLAND exported 90.5 billion
of ownership of its real and financial assets and imported 112.7 billion. This capital account deficit depleted 22.2 billion
of foreign currencies from IBLAND.
Official Settlement Account
The Central Banks of nations holds quantities of foreign currencies called official international reserves. These reserves
can be drawn on to make up any net deficit in the combined current and capital accounts (much as one would use their
savings to pay for a special purchase). In 2010 IBLAND had an 8.0 billion surplus (line 9 plus line 12). Balance in the
IBLAND international payments led the IBLAND government to increase its official international reserves by 8 billion
(item 13). The negative sign indicates that this is a debit- the inpayment to official international reserves needed to
balance the overall balance of payments account.
In some years, the sum of the current and capital accounts balances may be negative, meaning that IBLAND earned less
foreign currencies than it needed. The deficit would create an outpayment from the stock of international reserves. As
such item 13 would have a positive sign since it’s a credit
Payments deficits and surpluses
Even though the BOP payments must always sum to zero, deficits and surpluses refer to imbalances between the
current and capital accounts (line 9 minus line 12) which cause a drawing down or building up of foreign currencies.