Housing and Human Needs Interior Design I Chapter 1.2 Notes Learning Targets I can define housing and briefly describe how it has evolved. I can analyze the basic physical and psychological needs that housing satisfies. I can compare and contrast housing needs among people of different ages and life stages. I can assess the importance of building homes that follow the concept of universal design. Vocabulary Adaptable Design Archaeologist Barrier-Free Design Housing Lifestyles Nomads Physical Needs Psychological Needs Universal Design Physical Needs Physical needs include all the things the body needs to survive: air, sunlight, shelter, sleep and food. Shelter (from nature’s elements) Sleep (comfort) Food (to prepare and eat) Safety and Security (from those who might harm or steal) Need for safety… Form first towns and villages Shelters into cliffs Pioneers built stockades Log-walled enclosures Today… Fences Install locks Neighborhood watches Psychological Needs Needs related to thoughts, feelings and emotions Love and belonging Identity Creativity Housing and Individual Needs (handout) Special Housing Needs Why has housing been modified? Elderly (increase in older population) People with disabilities (wanting independence and comfort) Universal Design-- Designing interiors and products to accommodate all people with a variety of requirements, needs, and abilities. Barrier-free Design– Living spaces are designed without structures that would prevent access by people with special needs. Adaptable Design– Design features that are temporary and can be easily changed. (Ex. Temporary ramp/cabinets that can be removed when the tenant moves out) UNIVERSAL DESIGN “Too often older or disabled people live limited lives or give up their homes and neighborhoods prematurely because standard housing of the past cannot meet their needs. While a truly universally usable house is a goal for the future, many features in houses today already are or easily can be made universally usable. The universal design concept increases the supply of usable housing by including universal features in as many houses as possible, and allows people to remain in their homes as long as they like” R o n a l d L . Ma c e , FA I A Architect and Product Designer UNIVERSAL DESIGN – a definition The intent of the universal design concept is to simplify life for everyone by making more housing usable by more people at little or no extra cost. Universal design is an approach to design that: • incorporates products as well as building features and elements • universal design concept targets all people of all ages, sizes, and abilities and is applied to all buildings UNIVERSAL DESIGN What is a universal feature? • Any component of a house that can be used by everyone regardless of their level of ability or disability. • Universal features are generally standard building products or features that have been placed differently, selected carefully, or omitted. Entrance Features Structural • Accessible route from vehicle drop-off or parking places • Covered entry • Full-length side window at entry door • Minimum maneuvering space of 5x5 Non-Structural • Package shelf or bench to hold parcels, groceries, and other items • Movement-sensor light controls • Ambient and focused lighting (at keyhole) • High visible address numbers BENEFITS OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN Entrance Features Level and accessible entrances Covered entries Full-length side window at entry door EXTERIOR Rather than steps, use a ground-level entrance or a ramp with non-skid surface. The ramp should be wide enough to accommodate a wheelchair or baby stroller easily with turn-around space. Provide secure handrails for both ramps and stairways. INTERIOR Wide doorways, hallways and space within each room accommodate someone who uses a wheelchair, walker or crutches. Thresholds should be flush with the floor. Light switches and electrical outlets should be mounted at levels easily accessed from a wheelchair as for people of different heights. They should also contrast with the wall for better visibility. INTERIOR Lever-type doorknobs are easier for children and people with arthritis to use than round ones, yet they cause no inconvenience for others. Built-in flexibility is another way to achieve universal design. Instead of having a fixed shelf and rod, a closet can include adjustable shelving units that are easy to adapt to the individual. General Interior Features Structural 32-inch minimum clear door-opening Flush threshold (maximum of 1/2 –inch rise) Light switches at 48-inch maximum height Crank-operated (casement) windows Minimum maneuvering space of 5x5 foot Non-Structural Maximum force of 5 pounds to open doors Loop-handles pulls on drawers and cabinets High-contrast, glare-free floor surfaces and trim BENEFITS OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN General Interior Features Minimum door opening of 32 inches Lever-style door handles Adjustable-height closet rods Tall windows placed low on the wall Electrical receptacles 18 inches from the floor Kitchen Features Structural • Lever-type faucets • Variable-height work surfaces • Knee space under sink and near cook top • Full-height pantry cabinets for up and down storage • Stretches of continuous counter for sliding heavy objects Non-Structural • Pull-out shelves in base cabinets • Full-extension pull-out drawers • Adjustable-height shelves in wall cabinets • Contrasting border treatment on countertops BENEFITS OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN Kitchen Features Knee space under sink and cook top Lever-type water controls Variable-height work surfaces Contrasting borders on countertops Pull-out shelves in cabinets Pantry cabinet with full-length shelves Bathroom Features Structural Mirror to backsplash at sink Toilet centered 18 inches from side wall Grab bar in walls around toilet Knee space under sink Off-set controls in tub or shower Built-in transfer seat in tub or shower Non-Structural Adjustable-height shower head Grab bars in tub or shower Level type faucets BENEFITS OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN Bathroom Features Adjustable-height shower head Grab bars in tub or shower Over-sink mirror extending down to backsplash UNIVERSAL DESIGN – Demonstration Home Landscape 1st Floor 2nd Floor UNIVERSAL DESIGN “The universal design concept considers those changes that are experienced by everyone as they grow from infancy to old age. Problems related to temporary or permanent disabilities are incorporated into the concept as well. Because all groups are placed within the context of normal expectations of the human condition, trying to justify the importance of each vulnerable population group becomes unnecessary.” Leon A. Pastalan, Ph.D. Gerontologist and Urban Planner UNIVERSAL DESIGN – Rationale Living spaces have long been designed for use by one “average” physical type – young, fit, male, and adult. The fact is that only some of us fit that description, and none of us can be described that way for a lifetime. Group Work! Brainstorm a list of those people who don’t fit the “average” physical type. Utilize white butcher paper and markers. Population is Changing Building & Design Industries Have Responded Universal Design SUCCEEDS because it goes beyond specialization! Universal Design benefits ALL people…with/without “special needs” Families having changing needs Fits people with a variety of physical requirements and abilities. Reduces need to adapt homes to meet these changes. UNIVERSAL DESIGN “The overwhelming preference of older persons is to age in place; that is, to remain in their homes as they grow older. It is essential that residences be designed to be safe, comfortable, and accommodating to persons of all ages but particularly to those who are faced with diminishing physical abilities which make daily domestic routines difficult to manage. Universal design is a concept that will enable older people to remain in their homes as they would wish” Cyril F. Brickfield Former Executive Director of AARP UNIVERSAL DESIGN – Simple Changes to an Already Existing Home Install handrails on both sides of all steps (inside and outside) Secure all carpets and area rugs with double-sided tape Install easy to grasp shaped handles for all drawers and cabinet doors Use brighter bulbs in all settings Install nightlights in all areas of night activity Add reflective, non-slip tape on all non-carpeted stairs Install lever handles for all doors Place a bench near entrances for setting down purchases and resting Install closet lights, as well as adjustable rods and shelves Install rocker light switches; consider illuminated ones in select areas UNIVERSAL DESIGN – A Low Cost Solution Many universal features are no-cost options Others are low-cost solutions that can become no-cost with widespread use In our society, mass production is used to keep costs low and to produce products that are widely marketable Because universally designed products make as little as possible “special” Make as much as possible “standard” Mass producing design that is both usable and attractive to everyone UNIVERSAL DESIGN “Today’s architects address the life cycle of buildings. It is time that they began to address the life cycle of people as well. Universal design is considerate of the human lifespan and the continuum of abilities of all individuals.” Ruth Hall Lusher, D. Arch. Candidate Find three examples where Universal Design is not used. Paste the examples on a sheet of paper and tell me what could be different about the room to achieve Universal Design. SelfActualization Esteem Love and Acceptance Security Physical needs Physical Needs Your physical needs, such as food, water, shelter, and clothing must be at least partially satisfied before you can think about anything else. Security Next, you need to feel safe in your surroundings and know what to expect. You need protection from physical harm and economic disaster. Love and Acceptance At this point, you want to gain affection. You need to be praised and accepted by others. A small failure can make you feel rejected as a person. You need much support, assurance, and personal warmth. Esteem Not only do you want to be liked, but you also want to be respected. In this way, you gain confidence and feel necessary in the world. Self-Actualization To reach this level, all other needs must be fulfilled to some degree. You feel a need to develop your full potential. You learn because you want to be a “well-rounded” person. You have pride and self-respect. You can show individuality despite social pressures. You have your own opinions and are able to express them. Challenges for Tomorrow #1 Designing and building usable housing to meet a variety of needs. #2 Find ways to make better housing available to low-and middle-income people and to improve the social environment #3 Conserve energy and natural resources. *Every year in the U.S., homes account for more than 30 percent of the total energy consumption and produce nearly 20 percent of all air pollution missions. The Future of Housing???