Family Life Cycle

Housing and Human
Interior Design I
Chapter 1.2 Notes
Learning Targets
 I can define housing and briefly describe how it
has evolved.
 I can analyze the basic physical and
psychological needs that housing satisfies.
 I can compare and contrast housing needs
among people of different ages and life stages.
 I can assess the importance of building homes
that follow the concept of universal design.
 Adaptable Design
 Archaeologist
 Barrier-Free Design
 Housing
 Lifestyles
 Nomads
 Physical Needs
 Psychological Needs
 Universal Design
Physical Needs
Physical needs include all the things the
body needs to survive: air, sunlight,
shelter, sleep and food.
Shelter (from nature’s elements)
Sleep (comfort)
Food (to prepare and eat)
Safety and Security (from those who
might harm or steal)
Need for safety…
 Form first towns and villages
 Shelters into cliffs
 Pioneers built stockades
 Log-walled enclosures
 Fences
 Install locks
 Neighborhood watches
Psychological Needs
Needs related to thoughts, feelings and
Love and belonging
Housing and Individual Needs (handout)
Special Housing Needs
Why has housing been modified?
Elderly (increase in older
People with disabilities (wanting
independence and comfort)
Universal Design-- Designing interiors
and products to accommodate all people
with a variety of requirements, needs, and
Barrier-free Design– Living spaces are
designed without structures that would
prevent access by people with special
Adaptable Design– Design features that
are temporary and can be easily changed.
(Ex. Temporary ramp/cabinets that can be
removed when the tenant moves out)
“Too often older or disabled people live limited lives or give up their
homes and neighborhoods prematurely because standard housing of
the past cannot meet their needs. While a truly universally usable house
is a goal for the future, many features in houses today already are or
easily can be made universally usable. The universal design concept
increases the supply of usable housing by including universal features in
as many houses as possible, and allows people to remain in their homes
as long as they like”
R o n a l d L . Ma c e , FA I A
Architect and Product Designer
UNIVERSAL DESIGN – a definition
The intent of the universal design concept is to
simplify life for everyone by making more
housing usable by more people at little or no
extra cost.
Universal design is an approach to design that:
• incorporates products as well as building features and
• universal design concept targets all people of all ages,
sizes, and abilities and is applied to all buildings
What is a universal feature?
• Any component of a house that can be used
by everyone regardless of their level of
ability or disability.
• Universal features are generally standard
building products or features that have been
placed differently, selected carefully, or
Entrance Features
• Accessible route from vehicle drop-off or parking places
• Covered entry
• Full-length side window at entry door
• Minimum maneuvering space of 5x5
• Package shelf or bench to hold parcels, groceries,
and other items
• Movement-sensor light controls
• Ambient and focused lighting (at keyhole)
• High visible address numbers
Entrance Features
 Level and accessible entrances
 Covered entries
 Full-length side window at entry
Rather than steps, use a
ground-level entrance or a ramp
with non-skid surface.
The ramp should be wide
enough to accommodate a
wheelchair or baby stroller
easily with turn-around space.
Provide secure handrails for
both ramps and stairways.
 Wide doorways, hallways and space
within each room accommodate
someone who uses a wheelchair,
walker or crutches. Thresholds
should be flush with the floor.
 Light switches and electrical outlets
should be mounted at levels easily
accessed from a wheelchair as for
people of different heights. They
should also contrast with the wall for
better visibility.
Lever-type doorknobs are easier for
children and people with arthritis to use
than round ones, yet they cause no
inconvenience for others.
Built-in flexibility is another way to
achieve universal design. Instead of
having a fixed shelf and rod, a closet
can include adjustable shelving units
that are easy to adapt to the individual.
General Interior Features
 32-inch minimum clear door-opening
 Flush threshold (maximum of 1/2 –inch
 Light switches at 48-inch maximum
 Crank-operated (casement) windows
 Minimum maneuvering space of 5x5 foot
 Maximum force of 5 pounds to open
 Loop-handles pulls on drawers and
 High-contrast, glare-free floor surfaces
and trim
General Interior Features
 Minimum door opening of 32
 Lever-style door handles
 Adjustable-height closet rods
 Tall windows placed low on
the wall
 Electrical receptacles 18
inches from the floor
Kitchen Features
• Lever-type faucets
• Variable-height work surfaces
• Knee space under sink and near cook top
• Full-height pantry cabinets for up and
down storage
• Stretches of continuous counter for
sliding heavy objects
• Pull-out shelves in base cabinets
• Full-extension pull-out drawers
• Adjustable-height shelves in wall
• Contrasting border treatment on
Kitchen Features
Knee space under sink and cook top
Lever-type water controls
Variable-height work surfaces
Contrasting borders on countertops
Pull-out shelves in cabinets
Pantry cabinet with full-length shelves
Bathroom Features
 Mirror to backsplash at sink
 Toilet centered 18 inches from
side wall
 Grab bar in walls around toilet
 Knee space under sink
 Off-set controls in tub or shower
 Built-in transfer seat in tub or
 Adjustable-height shower head
 Grab bars in tub or shower
 Level type faucets
Bathroom Features
 Adjustable-height shower head
 Grab bars in tub or shower
 Over-sink mirror extending
down to backsplash
UNIVERSAL DESIGN – Demonstration
1st Floor
2nd Floor
“The universal design concept considers those
changes that are experienced by everyone as
they grow from infancy to old age. Problems
related to temporary or permanent disabilities
are incorporated into the concept as well.
Because all groups are placed within the
context of normal expectations of the human
condition, trying to justify the importance of
each vulnerable population group becomes
Leon A. Pastalan, Ph.D.
Gerontologist and Urban Planner
Living spaces have long been designed for use by one
“average” physical type – young, fit, male, and adult. The
fact is that only some of us fit that description, and none of
us can be described that way for a lifetime.
Group Work! Brainstorm a list of those people who don’t
fit the “average” physical type. Utilize white butcher
paper and markers.
 Population is Changing
 Building & Design Industries Have Responded
Universal Design SUCCEEDS because it goes beyond
Universal Design benefits ALL
people…with/without “special needs”
Families having changing needs
Fits people with a variety of physical
requirements and abilities.
Reduces need to adapt homes to
meet these changes.
“The overwhelming preference of older persons is
to age in place; that is, to remain in their homes
as they grow older. It is essential that residences
be designed to be safe, comfortable, and accommodating
to persons of all ages but particularly
to those who are faced with diminishing physical
abilities which make daily domestic routines difficult
to manage. Universal design is a concept that
will enable older people to remain in their homes
as they would wish”
Cyril F. Brickfield
Former Executive Director of AARP
Simple Changes to an Already Existing Home
 Install handrails on both sides of all steps (inside and outside)
 Secure all carpets and area rugs with double-sided tape
 Install easy to grasp shaped handles for all drawers and cabinet
 Use brighter bulbs in all settings
 Install nightlights in all areas of night activity
 Add reflective, non-slip tape on all non-carpeted stairs
 Install lever handles for all doors
 Place a bench near entrances for setting down purchases and
 Install closet lights, as well as adjustable rods and shelves
 Install rocker light switches; consider illuminated ones in select
A Low Cost Solution
 Many universal features are no-cost options
 Others are low-cost solutions that can become no-cost
with widespread use
 In our society, mass production is used to keep costs
low and to produce products that are widely marketable
 Because universally designed products make as little as
possible “special”
 Make as much as possible “standard”
 Mass producing design that is both usable and attractive
to everyone
“Today’s architects address the life cycle of
buildings. It is time that they began to address
the life cycle of people as well. Universal
is considerate of the human lifespan and the
continuum of abilities of all individuals.”
Ruth Hall Lusher, D. Arch. Candidate
Find three examples where Universal
Design is not used. Paste the examples
on a sheet of paper and tell me what could
be different about the room to achieve
Universal Design.
Love and Acceptance
Physical needs
Physical Needs
Your physical needs, such as food, water,
shelter, and clothing must be at least
partially satisfied before you can think
about anything else.
Next, you need to feel safe in your
surroundings and know what to expect.
You need protection from physical harm
and economic disaster.
Love and Acceptance
At this point, you want to gain affection.
You need to be praised and accepted by
A small failure can make you feel rejected
as a person.
You need much support, assurance, and
personal warmth.
Not only do you want to be liked, but you
also want to be respected. In this way,
you gain confidence and feel necessary in
the world.
 To reach this level, all other needs
must be fulfilled to some degree.
You feel a need to develop your full
 You learn because you want to be
a “well-rounded” person. You have
pride and self-respect.
 You can show individuality despite
social pressures. You have your
own opinions and are able to
express them.
Challenges for Tomorrow
#1 Designing and building usable housing to meet
a variety of needs.
#2 Find ways to make better housing available to
low-and middle-income people and to improve
the social environment
#3 Conserve energy and natural resources.
*Every year in the U.S., homes account for more
than 30 percent of the total energy consumption
and produce nearly 20 percent of all air pollution
The Future of Housing???