Secondary Groups

Ms. Blackhurst
 Introduction
to Groups PowerPoint
 Discuss key items, complete class
 HW: Group Web
Discuss the need for conformity in a
society within the context of the problems
that can arise with following norms blindly.
Identify and explain the relationship
between norms and laws in society and the
society’s values.
Explain how differences between
subcultures exist within a culture.
Consists of two or more people who…
 Interact in patterned ways
 Have a feeling of unity
 Share certain common interests and expectations
Primary Groups
 People who regularly interact and have close and longlasting relationships
Secondary Groups
 People who interact on a formal and impersonal basis to
accomplish a specific objective
 Group
at least two people
who have one or more
goals in common and
share common ways
of thinking and
 Social group with two
 Social interaction in a
dyad is typically more
intense than in larger
groups because
neither member
shares the other's
attention with
anyone else.
Social group with three
members, which contains
three relationships, each
uniting two of the three
 More stable than a dyad
because one member can
act as a mediator should
the relationship between
the other two become
In regular contact with each other
 Share some ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving
 Take one another’s behavior into account
 One or more goals in common
 People
who are
emotionally close,
know one another
well and seek one
another’s company
 Ex: Family, childhood
play groups, close
friends, neighbors
 “We”
 Enjoy
each other
 Primary Relationships:
Fulfilling relationships
 Small
 Face-to-Face Contact
 Continuous Contact
 Proper Social Environment
 Emotional
 Socialization
 Encourage Conformity
 Impersonal
 Goal
 Purpose of the group is to accomplish a task,
not to enrich friendships
Ex: Work groups, sports teams, volunteers
 Secondary
relationships—clerk & customer,
employers & workers, dentists & patients
 There can be some primary relationships in a
secondary group
Ex: two friends (primary) on the field hockey team (secondary)
A marine recruit & his drill instructor at
boot camp ___________________________
A married couple __________________
A coach & his soccer team __________
A teacher & his student _____________
A car salesperson and her potential
customer _________________________
 Small
group size
 Face-to-face contact
 Continuous contact
 Interaction on the basis of status or role
 _________________________________
 Read
pages 69-72, then define and give an
example of each of these six terms:
 Conflict
 Coercion
 Conformity
 Cooperation
 Social
form of interaction in which individuals or groups
combine their efforts to reach a goal
Usually occurs when…
Reaching a goal demands the best use of limited
resources and efforts
 Examples: survivors of a plane crash in the mountains;
victims of natural disasters
Exists outside of emergencies as well
 Examples: rules for games; sharing household duties
 Groups
or individuals that work against one
another for a larger share of the rewards.
Defeating the opponent is essential
Social Benefits of Conflict:
 Promotes cooperation and unity within opposing groups
Example: A neighborhood bully can bring together 2
brothers who usually don’t get along.
Draws attention to social inequities
Examples: Civil Rights activists in the 60s convinced
Congress to make laws to ensure basic rights and freedoms
to all people.
voluntary action performed in the
expectation of getting a reward in return
Benefit to be earned rather than the relationship
itself that is key
Example: You help a friend wash her car, she then
helps you study for a test
 Individuals
or groups are forced to give in to
the will of other individuals or groups
One-way street; central element is domination
May occur through: physical force (imprisonment,
torture, or death)
 Example: Prisoners of war can be forced to reveal
information to enemies.
More often through: social pressure (ridicule,
rejection, withdrawal of affection)
 Example: Parents can control behavior of young
children by threatening to withdraw privileges.
 Behavior
that matches group expectations
Adapt behavior to fit behavior of those around us
Necessary for culture and social structure
 Church
 Family
 University
 Government
a. Cooperation
b. Conflict
d. Coercion
e. Conformity
c. Social
1. Blood donors expect payment
2. Students read what a teacher assigns
3. Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait
4. Flood victims help each other
5. Employees are forced to work overtime
or be fired
 Giving
a list of 10
places that social
exchange might occur.
 Then describe the type
of interaction using
your terms from
 Family
 Conversation at lunch
with friends
 Discussions at the UN
 A bully picking on a
 Self-deceptive
thinking that is based on
conformity to group beliefs, and created by
group pressure to conform
Discourages members from expressing their concerns
about group decisions
Examples: JFK’s Bay of Pigs Invasion, Personal examples???
 Why
would you say you agree with other
people in the group if you really don’t?
 Because
we have been taught to conform!
 Group Think isn’t always a negative thing!
 Because
of the difficulty of going against
decisions made by the group, some
sociologists believe that Groupthink exists
 Happens when group members agree to
conform rather than express their true
feelings or beliefs
 It appears as if the group agrees but they
really don’t
 Can lead to ineffective or destructive
In-Groups and Out-Groups
 Group with which people identify and have a sense of
 “we”
 Group that people do not identify with and consider less
worthy and less desirable than their own
 “they”
 Reference
Groups—group used for selfevaluation and the formation of attitudes,
values, beliefs, and norms
 Social
Network—all of a person’s social
relationships make up his or her social
 Aggregate
– based on proximity at a give
Ex: people in line at Starbucks or a political
Dr. Stanley Milgram’s
Obedience to
Authority Experiment
 Dr.
Philip Zimbardo’s
Stanford Prison
 Create
a web diagram of the primary &
secondary groups to which you belong
 Include at least three primary & three
secondary groups
 Then explain the function of each of these
groups in your life
 You may do as a poster or using a web
program (PPT, Prezi, Paint)
Dr. Appt
Graduate Course
Check out at
giant eagle
Friends at
Friends at
 Complete
the primary and secondary group
 You must have at least 8-10 groups on your
sheet when you finish.
 Due
next class