WH Ch. 17 Study Guide

WH Ch. 17 Study Guide
1. A ____ state is a government that aims to control the political, economic,
social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens.
2. A factor in leading many Germans to accept Hitler and the Nazis was
3. An ____ is a period of low economic activity and rising unemployment.
4. Analyze similarities and differences in totalitarian state and authoritarian
5. Dadaists were artists who
6. Describe the goals of Joseph Stalin’s Five-Year Plans.
7. Describe the role of women and men under Hitler’s Nazi regime.
8. Explain how the uncertainty of post-World War I society was mirrored in
the world of physics. Evaluate its challenge of Newton’s theory.
9. Fascism glorifies the state above the individual by emphasizing the need for
10.How did Benito Mussolini gain the support of the Catholic Church?
11.James Joyce’s novel Ulysses is the most famous example of
12.John Maynard Keynes argued that unemployment
13.Surrealist ____ painted everyday objects but separated them from their
normal contexts.
14.The ____ was the leading policy-making body of the Communist Party.
15.The Enabling Act allowed Hitler to establish a totalitarian state by
16.The literary work of ____ includes Siddhartha and Steppenwolf.
17.The purpose of Stalin’s Five Year Plans was to
18.The Treaty of Locarno guaranteed
19.The Triumph of the Will was
20.To deal with runaway German inflation, an international commission created
the Dawes Plan, which
21.What was the Kristallnacht?
22.What were the “Nuremberg laws”?
23.What were the effects of the Enabling Act to Hitler’s success in controlling
24.Who led the Spanish military in a revolt against the democratic government?
25.Who was the propaganda minister for Nazi Germany?
1. Totalitarian
2. The belief that Hitler had ended Germany’s economic depression and the scare of
communists taking over the German government.
3. Economic depression
4. Totalitarian state is a government that aims to control the political, economic,
social, intellectual, and cultural lives of its citizens. Totalitarian states wanted
more than passive obedience. They wanted to conquer the minds and hearts of
their subjects. They achieved this goal through mass propaganda techniques and
high-speed modern communication. Modern technology also provided totalitarian
states with an unprecedented ability to impose their wishes on their subjects.
Authoritarian governments main concern was not to create a new kind of mass
society, but to preserve the existing social order. However, authoritarian
governments adopted some features of totalitarian states, including their use of
police powers.
5. Tried to express in their art their revulsion for what they saw as the insanity of life
6. The Five-Year Plans set economic goals for five-year periods. Their purpose was
to transform Russia virtually overnight from an agricultural into an industrial
country. The first Five-Year Plan emphasized maximum production of capital
goods and armaments. The plan quadrupled the production of heavy machinery
and doubled oil production. Between 1928 and 1937, steel production in Russia
increased from 4 million to 18 million tons per year. With rapid industrialization
came an equally rapid collectivization of agriculture. Private farms were
eliminated and the government took ownership of all the land.
7. Women played a crucial role in the Aryan state of Hitler’s Nazi regime. The
women were the bearers of the children who, it was believed, would bring about
the triumph of the Aryan race. The Nazis believed men were destined to be
warriors and political leaders, while women were meant to be wives and mothers.
By preserving this clear distinction, each could best serve to “maintain the whole
community.” The Nazis discouraged women from taking jobs in heavy industry
and certain professions, and instead encouraged women to pursue other
occupations, such as social work and nursing.
8. The new picture of the universe that was unfolding in physics undermined the old
certainties of the classical physics of Newton. Newtonian physics had made people
believe that all phenomena could be completely defined and predicted. This belief
was shaken when the German physicist Werner Heisenberg explained an
observation he called the uncertainty principle. Physicists knew that atoms were
made up of smaller parts. The fact that the behavior of these subatomic particles is
unpredictable provides the foundation for Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle.
Heisenberg’s theory essentially suggests that all physical laws are based on
uncertainty. The theory’s emphasis on randomness challenges Newtonian physics
and thus, in a way, represents a new world view, mirroring the uncertainty that
was present in post-World War I society.
9. A strong central government led by a dictatorial ruler
10. He gave the Church money and official recognition.
11. The “stream of consciousness” technique
12. Came not from overproduction, but a decline in demand
13. Salvador Dali
14. Politburo
15. Giving the government the power to ignore the constitution for 4 years
16. Hermann Hesse
17. Transform the USSR from an agricultural into an industrial economy
18. Germany’s new western borders with France & Belgium
19. A Nazi documentary film that forcefully conveyed the power of National
20. Reduced Germany’s Reparations debt
21. It was a destructive Nazi rampage against the Jews
22. They excluded Jews from German citizenship, forbade marriages between Jews &
German, required Jews to wear yellow Stars of David, and carry ID cards
identifying them as Jews.
23. The right-wing elites of Germany, the industrial leaders, landed aristocrats,
military officers, and higher bureaucrats, looked to Hitler for leadership. A twothirds vote of the Reichstag passed the Enabling Act. This law gave government
the power to ignore the constitution for four years while it issued laws to deal with
the country’s problems. This Act gave Hitler’s action legal basis. In effect, Hitler
became a dictator appointed by the parliamentary body itself. With this power,
Nazis purged the civil service of Jews and democratic elements. Large prison
camps were set up for those who opposed the new regime. Trade unions were
dissolved. All political parties expect Nazis were abolished.
24. Francisco Franco
25. Joseph Goebbels