Comm Apps Bell Work 8/24/2015

Comm Apps Bell Work 8/24/2015
1. Get a Syllabus from the front
table, find your seat.
2. Make a list of all types of
communication you can think of
throughout time.
3. Think of your favorite way to
communicate, and be ready to
explain why.
Comm Apps Bell Work 8/25/2015
Elements of Communication
1. Communication:
2. Sender:
3. Receiver:
4. Message:
5. Feedback:
6. Context:
7. Communication
8. Noise:
• Process of sharing a message with 1+ others
• Person who transmits message
• Person to whom message is sent
• Information with meaning that is shared
with others
• Response to sender indicating how message
was received or understood
• Situation in which a message is shared
• Medium of communication
• Distraction that interferes with the sharing
of the message
Comm Apps Bell Work 8/26/2015
Communication Types and Ethics
1. Intrapersonal:
• Mental interactions that take place when a
person talks w/ him/herself; consciously or
2. Interpersonal:
• Formal or informal interaction between 2
people who have an identifiable relationship
with each other
3. Small Group:
• 3 to 20 people come together for a specific
4. Public:
• 1 participant or speaker delivers a prepared
message to audience of 20+ people
5. Ethics:
6. Ethical Dilemma:
• Moral principles held by a society, a group,
or individual.
• Choice between 2 imperfect options
What Type?
What Type?
What Type?
What Type?
I should say something
Comm Apps Bell Work 8/27/2015
Communication Competence
1. Communication
• Impression that a person communicates
appropriately and effectively in a given
• Traits- motivation, knowledge, skills,
credibility, and social ease
2. Communication
• Fear or anxiety associated with real or
anticipated communication with others in
• Speaking situations in general
• Limited periods of time, ex. Interviews
• Specific people or groups
• Particular situations
3. Miscommunication:
• Failure to communicate clearly.
Comm Apps Bell Work 8/31/2015
1. Perception:
2. Interpret:
3. Pattern:
• Process of paying attention and assigning
meaning to information
• To give meaning to
• Selective attention/change blindness
can affect how we interpret.
• Ex. Basketball video, Detective
• Your needs can drive what you
• Set of characteristics that sets apart some
things from others
• Ex. 1: 2547642801
• Organization is VITAL to speaking!!
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/1/2015
Self Discovery, Self Concept, Self Esteem
1. Self Discovery:
2. Self-concept:
3. Ideal Self-concept:
4. Self-esteem:
5. Self-fulfilling
6. Self-talk
• Process by which a person forms and
maintains his/her self-identity or selfconcept
• Who a person thinks they really are
• Do other people’s opinions have an
effect on this? Why or why not?
• A person’s idea of what they
WANT to be
• Person’s positive or negative view of self
• False perception about a situation, skill, or
characteristic that leads to behaviors that
perpetuate that false perception as true
• Internal conversations people sometimes
have with themselves
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/2/2015
Self Disclosure and Perception of Others
1. Self-Disclosure:
2. Self-monitoring:
3. Role:
4. Uncertainty
5. Halo Effect
• Process of presenting oneself to others
• Internal process in which people keep track
of what they are saying and doing, and how
they think others perceive them
• Pattern of learned behaviors that a person
uses to meet the perceived demands of a
specific setting
• Process of monitoring the social
environment to learn more about self and
• Giving someone a whole set of
characteristics based on the observation of
only one characteristic, trait or behavior
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/3/2015
Self Disclosure and Perception of Others
1. Stereotype:
• Generalization used to describe a group that
may be exaggerated or offensive
2. Prejudice:
• An irrational, often hostile attitude toward a
person or group
3. Discrimination:
4. Perception Check:
• Unfair treatment of a person or group
based on prejudice
• A message that shows a person’s
understanding of the meaning of another
person’s non-verbal behavior
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/7/2015
The Nature and Purpose of Language
1. Language:
2. Words:
3. Speech
4. Denotation:
5. Connotation:
6. Syntactic Context:
• Body of symbols and the systems or rules for
using them
• Symbols used by a speech community to
represent objects, ideas and feelings
• Group of people who speak the same
• Formal meaning of a word, as found in a
• The feeling associated with a word
• How and where a word is used in a sentence
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/8/2015
Types of Verbal Communication
1. Fluid:
2. Language register:
3. Revision :
4. Logic:
5. Tone
• Something that changes repeatedly
• Speaking: use volume, tempo, rhythm,
pauses, body language, gestures, tone
• Writing is fixed- how is it different?
• Style used when speaking or writing
• Static, Formal, Consultative, Casual,
• Stages of writing in which a draft is brought
to a higher level of completion
• Watch for structure, grammar,
spelling, vocabulary, tone, and
• A system of reasoning
• Words that show how a writer feels about
the subject and audience
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/9/2015
Types of Verbal Communication
1. Concrete words:
2. Abstract Words:
3. Precise Words :
4. Dating information:
5. Vivid wording:
6. Simile:
7. Metaphor:
8. Jargon:
9. Slang:
10.Generic Language:
• Words that appeal to senses
• Words with multiple meanings
• Narrow a larger category to smaller group
within the category
• Details that identify time or period a fact
was known to be true
• Style that produces strong/distinct mental
• Direct comparison- uses like or as
• Comparison using figurative identity to
connect concepts
• Technical terms only understood by select
• Informal language developed and used by
particular groups in society
• Words that apply only to one sex, race or
other group as though they represent
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/10/2015
Building Communication
• Each group must build the tallest tower they can using
only the supplies provided: 30 straws and Scotch Tape.
• In each group there are 9 people. You must follow these
2 of you can only talk to each other, but can say anything.
2 of you can only grunt
1 of you can only ask questions
1 of you can only say “Dude,” “Awesome,” and “Cool.”
1 of you can only say 1 word at a time- any word, but you cannot
speak again until someone else does.
1 of you can only speak in a whisper with your back to the groupyou can work facing the group, but cannot speak then.
1 of you must refer to the straws as wood, the tape as cement, and
the table top as bedrock
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/14/2015
Characteristics of Nonverbal
1. Nonverbal
• Bodily actions that accompany – or replacea verbal message
• Examples?
2. Gestures:
• Movement of our hands, arms and fingers
that we use to reinforce a verbal message
3. Eye Contact:
• How and how much we look at people with
whom we are communicating.
4. Ambiguity:
• Meaning is not clear or well-defined
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/15/2015
Types of Nonverbal Communication
1. Illustrators:
• Gestures that add to what is being said or
2. Emblems:
• Gestures that stand alone as communicators
3. Adaptors:
• Gestures that are automatic and a response
to a physical need
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/16/2015
Body Language
1. Eye Contact:
2. Posture:
3. Direct Body
4. Indirect Body
5. Motivated Body
6. Unmotivated Body
7. Haptics
• Looking at audience
• Orientation of movement of body
• Facing directly, indicates great interest
• Facing at an angle, indicates lack of
• Body movement that emphasizes your point
• Distracts from message: fidgeting
• What and how touch communicates
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/17/2015
1. Paralanguage:
2. Pitch:
3. Volume:
4. Rate
5. Quality:
6. Intonation
7. Vocalized pauses
• Vocal characteristics that carry meaning in
addition to your words
• Highness or lowness of voice
• Loudness of voice
• Speed of speech
• Sound of a person’s voice that distinguishes
it from others
• Variety, melody, or inflection in one’s voice
• Sounds that interrupt fluent speech aka
conversational fillers
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/21/2015
Use of Space
• How space and distance communicate
1. Proximics:
maintained when you interact with
2. Personal Space: • Distance
of our physical environment over which
3. Physical Space • Part
we exert control
• Objects and possessions used to decorate
4. Artifcacts:
the physical space a person controls
5. Monochronic Time • Time orientation that emphasizes one thing
at a time
6. Polychronic Time • Time orientation that emphasizes multiple
things at once
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/22/2015
Improving Nonverbal Communication
• Cleanliness, appropriate dress, good
1. Appearance:
grooming, good hygiene
2. Be aware
Nonverbal Messages
3. Be purposeful
1. Don’t assume it
4. Don’t distract from your
means the same
to everyone
2. Consider Context
5. Match your words
3. Pay attention to
6. Adapt to the situation
verbal and
4. Check your
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/28/2015
1. Listening:
2. Appreciative:
3. Discriminitive:
4. Critical:
5. Empathic:
6. Deliberative:
• Receiving & understanding spoken or
nonverbal messages
• Listen for enjoyment
• Working to understand speaker’s meaning
• Comprehending or understanding
• Understanding the feelings you hear
• Evaluating the importance of a message
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/29/2015
Listening Process
1. Attending:
2. Attention span:
3. Understanding:
• Amount of time we spend focused on what
we are listening to
4. Questioning:
5. Paraphrasing:
• To get details, clarify meanings or feelings
• Putting words into ideas or feelings you
have received
6. Content paraphrase:
7. Feelings paraphrase:
8. Empathy:
• Focusing on what the speaker is saying
• Decoding a message accurately to get the
proper meaning
• Repeating words someone said to you
• Repeating emotions that went with a
• Respond, understand their perspective,
demonstrate care and concern
Comm Apps Bell Work 9/30/2015
Listening Strategies and Barriers
1. Remembering:
2. Mnemonic Device:
3. Evaluation:
4. Factual Statement:
5. Inference:
6. Supportive message:
• Recalling a message accurately
• Technique to help you remember
• Analyze carefully to determine truth
• An account that can be verified as true
• Statement based on evidence that leads to
reasonable guess
• Statement that helps create a
conversational environment that
encourages a person to continue