Global School Project The University of South Florida Social Studies Education Program http://www.coedu.usf.edu/GlobalSchoolsProject Title: From the Cold War Space Race to Global Cooperation: Exploring the International Space Station Author: Kelly R. Miliziano Concept/Main Idea of Lesson: Students will understand the evolution, history and purpose of the ISS from the 1950s Cold War to the present Age of Global Interdependence. Duration of Lesson(s): There are four parts to this lesson. Each part is designed to take a minimum of one class period. Lesson B and C are best conducted in a computer lab. However, teachers can select the experiment and print them out for distribution to students so that the lesson can be conducted in the classroom setting. Intended Grade Level: 6-12 Infusion/Subject Area(s): Civics, Government, World History, American History, Global Studies, Economics National Curriculum Standards: National History Standards (http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/nchs/standards) American History Era 9 Postwar United States (1945 to early 1970s) Era 10 Contemporary United States (1968 to the present) Instructional Objectives: A. Students will explore the evolution, history and purpose of the ISS from the 1950s Cold War to the present Age of Global Interdependence. B. Students will explore the scientific collaboration aboard the ISS by the various experiments conducted on the ISS. C. Students will explore the many ways space exploration impacts daily life. D. Students will write a proposal to Congress outlining a position on the future of the Space Program in the United States. Learning Activities Sequence: Lesson A Objective: Students will explore the evolution, history and purpose of the ISS from the 1950s Cold War to the present Age of Global Interdependence. Step 1: Show a picture of the ISS without telling the students what it is. Ask the following: Can anyone tell me what this picture is? Who constructed it? When was it started? Where was it launched from? Who are the international partners? What purpose does it serve? Step 2: Tell students they will watch a short video clip. As students watch this short video, tell them to key an eye out for images that show this is indeed an international space station. (Hint: pictures of country flags, insignia from different countries, the different nationalities of the astronauts…etc.) They should record their observation in the handout provided titled: “What Kind of World Do You Want?” Show the video clip What Kind of World Do You Want? Video Clip file included or visit the following web address: http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=100242 111 Step 3: Debrief the video assignment. Ask students to tell what they observed and recorded as they watched the video. Step 4: Have students write down the following prompt before they watch the video clip. Watch the video clip. “A Global Partnership for All Mankind,” at http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html?media_id=977688 42 Step 5: Optional Reading assignment. Students will read the article on the ISS and write one sentence summaries for each paragraph. Article 1 also gives details about the International Space Station that complements the photo. Closing: Students write a paragraph answering the following writing prompt: Why would countries want to share space exploration? What challenges does this global partnership have? Lesson B Objective: Students will explore the scientific collaboration aboard the ISS by the various experiments conducted on the ISS. Step 1: Divide students into groups of 3-4. Teacher can either select an experiment for each group or allow students to browse experiments online at the NASA Website. Experiments are listed by…. Category | Date | Expedition | Partners | Experiment Name A|B|C|D|E|F|G|H|I|J|K|L|M|N|O|P|Q|R|S|T|U|V|W|X| Y| Zhttp://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/research/experiments_category .html Step 2: Students should read the experiment, summarize the findings and prepare to report back to the class. Step 3: Student groups present the summary of the experiment their selected or were assigned. Classmates record the information in the Handout titled ISS Experiments. Closing: Once all groups have presented, students reconvene in their group and review the various experiments. They should come to a consensus on which experiment or experiments they believe have the greatest importance to the human existence and why. Lesson C Objective: Students will explore the many ways space exploration impacts daily life. Step 1: This activity is a web quest and must be done in a computer lab or media center. Step 2: Direct students to the following website. Students will fill in the chart titled Handout NASA Home and City, with information from each area. http://www.nasa.gov/topics/nasalife/index.html clip on the lower left column titled NASA Home and City Discover how space exploration impacts your daily life. Step 3 Closing: After completing the web quest students can reconvene in their groups and decided which areas of our lives seem to be impacted the most by ISS research. Each group will report back to the class. Lesson D Objective: Students will write a proposal to Congress outlining a position on the future of the Space Program in the United States. Step 1: Using information from the lessons above or the Articles 1-3, students should create an outline of their main points. Step 2: Students will write their proposals Closing: Students can present their proposals to their classmates. Suggested Teacher Readings: Discovery Education. http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free- lesson-plans/life-in-space-international-space-station.cfm Lessons that explore the science and physics involved in the ISS. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/spacestation/resources.htm Comprehensive list of resources for teaching about the ISS including the different International Space Agencies International Space Station Facts and Figures Image above: The International Space Station's length and width is about the size of a football field. Credit: NASA The International Space Station marks its 10th anniversary of continuous human occupation on Nov. 2, 2010. Since Expedition 1, which launched Oct. 31, 2000, and docked Nov. 2, the space station has been visited by 196 individuals from eight different countries. At the time of the anniversary, the station’s odometer will read more than 1.5 billion statute miles (the equivalent of eight round trips to the Sun), over the course of 57,361 orbits around the Earth. Since the first module, Zarya, launched at 1:40 a.m. EST on Nov. 20, 1998, it has made a total of 68,519 orbits of our home planet, or about 1.7 billion miles on its odometer. As of the Nov. 2 anniversary date there have been 103 launches to the space station: 67 Russian vehicles, 34 space shuttles, one European and one Japanese vehicle. A total of 150 spacewalks have been conducted in support of space station assembly totaling more than 944 hours. The space station, including its large solar arrays, spans the area of a U.S. football field, including the end zones, and weighs 827,794 pounds. The complex now has more livable room than a conventional fivebedroom house, and has two bathrooms and a gymnasium. Additional launches will continue to augment these facts and figures, so check back here for the latest. International Space Station Size & Mass • • • • • Module Length: 167.3 feet (51 meters) Truss Length: 357.5 feet (109 meters) Solar Array Length: 239.4 feet (73 meters) Mass: 816,349 lb (370,290 kilograms) Habitable Volume: 12,705 cubic feet (360 cubic meters) • • • Pressurized Volume: 29,561 cubic feet (837 cubic meters) Power Generation: 8 solar arrays = 84 kilowatts Lines of Computer Code: approximately 2.3 million International Space Station at Completion Image above: Expedition 22 Flight Engineer Oleg Kotov wears a Russian Orlan spacesuit during a spacewalk. Credit: NASA • • • • • • The ISS solar array surface area could cover the U.S. Senate Chamber three times over. ISS eventually will be larger than a five-bedroom house. ISS will have an internal pressurized volume of 33,023 cubic feet, or equal that of a Boeing 747. The solar array wingspan (240 ft) is longer than that of a Boeing 777 200/300 model, which is 212 ft. Fifty-two computers will control the systems on the ISS. More than 100 space flights will have been conducted on five different types of launch vehicles over the course of the station’s construction. • • • • • More than 100 telephone-booth sized rack facilities can be in the ISS for operating the spacecraft systems and research experiments The ISS is almost four times as large as the Russian space station Mir, and about five times as large as the U.S. Skylab. The ISS will weigh almost one million pounds (925,627 lbs). That’s the equivalent of more than 320 automobiles. The ISS measures 357 feet end-to-end. That’s equivalent to the length of a football field including the end zones (well, almost – a football field is 360 feet). 3.3 million lines of software code on the ground supports 1.8 million lines of flight software code. • • • • 8 miles of wire connects the electrical power system. In the International Space Station’s U.S. segment alone, 1.5 million lines of flight software code will run on 44 computers communicating via 100 data networks transferring 400,000 signals (e.g. pressure or temperature measurements, valve positions, etc.). The ISS will manage 20 times as many signals as the Space Shuttle. Main U.S. control computers have 1.5 gigabytes of total main hard drive storage in U.S. segment compared to modern PCs, which have ~500 gigabyte hard drives. • The entire 55-foot robot arm assembly is capable of lifting 220,000 pounds, which is the weight of a Space Shuttle orbiter. The 75 to 90 kilowatts of power for the ISS is supplied by an acre of solar panels. Space Station Offers Harsh Lesson Copyright © 2011 Aviation Week, a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies. Jun 29, 2011 By Amy Svitak Le Bourget Despite its status as a shining example of international cooperation, the International Space Station has a harsh lesson to teach the five-member global partnership that built it: Unilateral decision-making can lead to chaos. Since NASA decided to end its aging cargo- and crew-carrying space shuttle program—a 2005 decision slated to take effect this summer—international partners contributing to the orbiting space complex, including NASA, have devised their own means of accessing the ISS. The result, according to European Space Agency (ESA) chief Jean-Jacques Dordain, is a crazy-quilt of smaller, less-capable cargo-hauling vehicles supplied by Europe, Japan, Russia and eventually the United States. Even worse, in the wake of the shuttle’s retirement, space station astronauts will have to rely solely on Russian Soyuz capsules to reach the orbiting outpost for the foreseeable future. “The most important lesson we can draw from the ISS program is precisely the lack of a common transportation policy, which means today we are in a not very comfortable situation,” Dordain said June 20 at the Paris air show. While unilateral decisions to develop unique space transportation systems were justifiable, in hindsight, Dordain says, Canada, Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S. could have done more to reach common ground. “It was anarchy, let’s be clear about it,” he said. In addition to Europe’s Ariane 5-launched Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), Japan’s H-2 Transfer Vehicle and Russia’s Progress cargo hauler, NASA is backing development of privately built space freighters, including the Dragon capsule, built by Hawthorne, Calif.-based SpaceX, and the Cygnus cargo module, from Dulles, Va.-based Orbital Sciences Corp. “Do we really need all of these?” Dordain asks. “This is a situation that results from a lack of consistency and consultation in the area of transportation.” Looking forward, Dordain hopes space-faring nations can avoid making a similar mistake as they embark on plans to build new rockets and spacecraft capable of sending humans beyond low Earth orbit. “My concern is that we should discuss and debate a common transportation policy with our partners,” he says. “We have to talk about common interfaces, what redundancies we need in the systems and once we have defined common needs, we’ll have to see who can do what on the basis of common interests being developed.” Dordain says ESA has already initiated talks with U.S. partners for potential future collaboration in the area of manned spaceflight. Since May, he notes, ESA and NASA have been talking about a plan to build a joint U.S.-European spacecraft based on existing designs that could ferry astronauts to the space station and on missions to the Moon and beyond. NASA Administrator Charles Bolden says Europe has much to offer the U.S. space agency, which expects to rely increasingly on international partners as looming federal deficits put downward pressure on federal discretionary spending. As NASA finalizes designs for a Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and a new heavy-lift rocket capable of sending humans beyond low Earth orbit, Bolden has encouraged U.S. companies to team with European firms. “It is my hope that we’ll be able to have Europeans in the critical path somewhere in the exploration initiative,” Bolden told Aviation Week, shortly before he attended a meeting with Dordain. The ESA director general raised the potential for a joint manned exploration initiative to combine the service module of the EADS Astrium-built ATV with NASA’s crew-capable MPCV, a space capsule based on the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle in development by Lockheed Martin Space Systems for the past six years. “If you look at what ATV’s capability is, what has been demonstrated, you can see where that has potential for use as a service module, for example,” Bolden says. “There’s all kinds of opportunities that exist based on demonstrated capability from our European partners.” Dordain, adding that Europe has no plans to develop its own manned spaceflight capability, says a joint U.S.-European program would afford ESA member states an opportunity to capitalize on their investment in the ATV while exploring ways to cover Europe’s share of common operations costs associated with the space station. Currently ESA expects to have no money available for ATV modifications beyond what it pays NASA for Europe’s share of the station’s operating costs through 2020. That figure is estimated at about $100 million. Dordain says the two sides are shooting for a rough outline of the joint vehicle concept and its development costs by fall, allowing ample time for ESA member states to evaluate the proposal ahead of their budget-setting ministerial council at the end of 2012. “We should converge towards the fall of this year toward possibly not even one single vehicle but at least toward one module that would make it possible to then have some derivatives in the future with one vehicle dedicated to the U.S., for instance, and one that Europeans could use in other circumstances,” he says. Credit: ESA The International Space Station The International Space Station is the largest and most complex international scientific project in history. And when it is complete just after the turn of the century, the the station will represent a move of unprecedented scale off the home planet. Led by the United States, the International Space Station draws upon the scientific and technological resources of 16 nations: Canada, Japan, Russia, 11 nations of the European Space Agency and Brazil. More than four times as large as the Russian Mir space station, the completed International Space Station will have a mass of about 1,040,000 pounds. It will measure 356 feet across and 290 feet long, with almost an acre of solar panels to provide electrical power to six state-of-the-art laboratories. The station will be in an orbit with an altitude of 250 statute miles with an inclination of 51.6 degrees. This orbit allows the station to be reached by the launch vehicles of all the international partners to provide a robust capability for the delivery of crews and supplies. The orbit also provides excellent Earth observations with coverage of 85 percent of the globe and over flight of 95 percent of the population. By the end of this year, about 500,000 pounds of station components will be have been built at factories around the world. U.S. Role and Contributions The United States has the responsibility for developing and ultimately operating major elements and systems aboard the station. The U.S. elements include three connecting modules, or nodes; a laboratory module; truss segments; four solar arrays; a habitation module; three mating adapters; a cupola; an unpressurized logistics carrier and a centrifuge module. The various systems being developed by the U.S. include thermal control; life support; guidance, navigation and control; data handling; power systems; communications and tracking; ground operations facilities and launch-site processing facilities. International Contributions The international partners, Canada, Japan, the European Space Agency, and Russia, will contribute the following key elements to the International Space Station: · Canada is providing a 55-foot-long robotic arm to be used for assembly and maintenance tasks on the Space Station. · The European Space Agency is building a pressurized laboratory to be launched on the Space Shuttle and logistics transport vehicles to be launched on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. · Japan is building a laboratory with an attached exposed exterior platform for experiments as well as logistics transport vehicles. · Russia is providing two research modules; an early living quarters called the Service Module with its own life support and habitation systems; a science power platform of solar arrays that can supply about 20 kilowatts of electrical power; logistics transport vehicles; and Soyuz spacecraft for crew return and transfer. In addition, Brazil and Italy are contributing some equipment to the station through agreements with the United States. ISS Phase One: The Shuttle-Mir Program The first phase of the International Space Station, the ShuttleMir Program, began in 1995 and involved more than two years of continuous stays by astronauts aboard the Russian Mir Space Station and nine Shuttle-Mir docking missions. Knowledge was gained in technology, international space operations and scientific research. Seven U.S. astronauts spent a cumulative total of 32 months aboard Mir with 28 months of continuous occupancy since March 1996. By contrast, it took the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet more than a dozen years and 60 flights to achieve an accumulated one year in orbit. Many of the research programs planned for the International Space Station benefit from longer stay times in space. The U.S. science program aboard the Mir was a pathfinder for more ambitious experiments planned for the new station. For less than two percent of the total cost of the International Space Station program, NASA gained knowledge and experience through Shuttle-Mir that could not be achieved any other way. That included valuable experience in international crew training activities; the operation of an international space program; and the challenges of long duration spaceflight for astronauts and ground controllers. Dealing with the real-time challenges experienced during Shuttle-Mir missions also has resulted in an unprecedented cooperation and trust between the U.S. and Russian space programs, and that cooperation and trust has enhanced the development of the International Space Station. Research on the International Space Station The International Space Station will establish an unprecedented state-of-the-art laboratory complex in orbit, more than four times the size and with almost 60 times the electrical power for experiments — critical for research capability — of Russia's Mir. Research in the station's six laboratories will lead to discoveries in medicine, materials and fundamental science that will benefit people all over the world. Through its research and technology, the station also will serve as an indispensable step in preparation for future human space exploration. Examples of the types of U.S. research that will be performed aboard the station include: · Protein crystal studies: More pure protein crystals may be grown in space than on Earth. Analysis of these crystals helps scientists better understand the nature of proteins, enzymes and viruses, perhaps leading to the development of new drugs and a better understanding of the fundamental building blocks of life. Similar experiments have been conducted on the Space Shuttle, although they are limited by the short duration of Shuttle flights. This type of research could lead to the study of possible treatments for cancer, diabetes, emphysema and immune system disorders, among other research. · Tissue culture: Living cells can be grown in a laboratory environment in space where they are not distorted by gravity. NASA already has developed a Bioreactor device that is used on Earth to simulate, for such cultures, the effect of reduced gravity. Still, these devices are limited by gravity. Growing cultures for long periods aboard the station will further advance this research. Such cultures can be used to test new treatments for cancer without risking harm to patients, among other uses. · Life in low gravity: The effects of long-term exposure to reduced gravity on humans – weakening muscles; changes in how the heart, arteries and veins work; and the loss of bone density, among others – will be studied aboard the station. Studies of these effects may lead to a better understanding of the body’s systems and similar ailments on Earth. A thorough understanding of such effects and possible methods of counteracting them is needed to prepare for future long-term human exploration of the solar system. In addition, studies of the gravitational effects on plants, animals and the function of living cells will be conducted aboard the station. A centrifuge, located in the Centrifuge Accommodation Module, will use centrifugal force to generate simulated gravity ranging from almost zero to twice that of Earth. This facility will imitate Earth’s gravity for comparison purposes; eliminate variables in experiments; and simulate the gravity on the Moon or Mars for experiments that can provide information useful for future space travels. · Flames, fluids and metal in space: Fluids, flames, molten metal and other materials will be the subject of basic research on the station. Even flames burn differently without gravity. Reduced gravity reduces convection currents, the currents that cause warm air or fluid to rise and cool air or fluid to sink on Earth. This absence of convection alters the flame shape in orbit and allows studies of the combustion process that are impossible on Earth, a research field called Combustion Science. The absence of convection allows molten metals or other materials to be mixed more thoroughly in orbit than on Earth. Scientists plan to study this field, called Materials Science, to create better metal alloys and more perfect materials for applications such as computer chips. The study of all of these areas may lead to developments that can enhance many industries on Earth. · The nature of space: Some experiments aboard the station will take place on the exterior of the station modules. Such exterior experiments can study the space environment and how longterm exposure to space, the vacuum and the debris, affects materials. This research can provide future spacecraft designers and scientists a better understanding of the nature of space and enhance spacecraft design. Some experiments will study the basic forces of nature, a field called Fundamental Physics, where experiments take advantage of weightlessness to study forces that are weak and difficult to study when subject to gravity on Earth. Experiments in this field may help explain how the universe developed. Investigations that use lasers to cool atoms to near absolute zero may help us understand gravity itself. In addition to investigating basic questions about nature, this research could lead to down-to-Earth developments that may include clocks a thousand times more accurate than today’s atomic clocks; better weather forecasting; and stronger materials. · Watching the Earth: Observations of the Earth from orbit help the study of large-scale, long-term changes in the environment. Studies in this field can increase understanding of the forests, oceans and mountains. The effects of volcanoes, ancient meteorite impacts, hurricanes and typhoons can be studied. In addition, changes to the Earth that are caused by the human race can be observed. The effects of air pollution, such as smog over cities; of deforestation, the cutting and burning of forests; and of water pollution, such as oil spills, are visible from space and can be captured in images that provide a global perspective unavailable from the ground. · Commercialization: As part of the Commercialization of space research on the station, industries will participate in research by conducting experiments and studies aimed at developing new products and services. The results may benefit those on Earth not only by providing innovative new products as a result, but also by creating new jobs to make the products. Assembly in Orbit By the end of this year, most of the components required for the first seven Space Shuttle missions to assemble the International Space Station will have arrived at the Kennedy Space Center. The first and primary fully Russian contribution to the station, the Service Module, is scheduled to be shipped from Moscow to the Kazakstan launch site in February 1999. Orbital assembly of the International Space Station will begin a new era of hands-on work in space, involving more spacewalks than ever before and a new generation of space robotics. About 850 clock hours of spacewalks, both U.S. and Russian, will be required over five years to maintain and assemble the station. The Space Shuttle and two types of Russian launch vehicles will launch 45 assembly missions. Of these, 36 will be Space Shuttle flights. In addition, resupply missions and changeouts of Soyuz crew return spacecraft will be launched regularly. The first crew to live aboard the International Space Station, commanded by U.S. astronaut Bill Shepherd and including Russian cosomonauts Yuri Gidzenko as Soyuz Commander and Sergei Krikalev as Flight Engineer, will be launched in early 2000 on a Russian Soyuz spacecraft. They, along with the crews of the first five assembly missions, are now in training. The timetable and sequence of flights for assembly, beyond the first two, will be further refined at a meeting of all the international partners in December 1998. Assembly is planned to be complete by 2004.