Unit 7: Test Review

The Middle East
Exam Review (Part I)
By: Mr. Mora
The Middle East
• This region is one of the original culture hearths – a source
region for cultural innovations, including agriculture, that
subsequently diffuse to other parts of world
– Agriculture
– Written language
– Judaism, Christianity, Islam
• Deserts, Arabs, Oil, Muslims, and geopolitical turmoil are
• Development of petroleum industry has had large impact on the
– OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) – member
countries profoundly influence global prices and production targets
for petroleum
• The region is at an intersection of three continents
(Africa/Asia/Europe) and home to the historically important
cities of Jerusalem and Istanbul.
• Islamic fundamentalism – this aspect of Islam that advocates return to more
traditional practices, calls for merger of civil and religious authority, and challenges
encroachment of global popular culture
Globalization & Diversity:
Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
Between 3000 b.c.e. and 300 b.c.e.
civilizations thrived in Mesopotamia, a
large region centered between
the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in
modern-day Iraq.
Main civilizations were the Sumerians
(3000–2000 b.c.e.), the Akkadians
(2350–2218 b.c.e.), the Babylonians
(1894–1595 b.c.e.), the Assyrians
(1380–612 b.c.e.), and the Persians
(550–330 b.c.e.).
Laid the foundation for customs that
would dominate later European
Mesopotamia, Cont.
• Cuneiform is a system of writing first developed by the
ancient Sumerians of Mesopotamia c. 3500-3000 BCE. It is
considered the most significant among the many cultural
contributions of the Sumerians and the greatest among those
of the Sumerian city of Uruk which advanced the writing
of cuneiform c. 3200 BCE.
Domestication: Training of animals and raising plants to be useful for humans.
The Code of Hammurabi
• The Code of Hammurabi is a well-preserved
Babylonian law code of ancient Mesopotamia,
dating back to about 1754 BC. It is one of the
oldest deciphered writings of significant length in
the world.
“An eye for an eye”
Hammurabi was a
Babylonian king.
Cultural Coherence and Diversity: Signatures of
• Patterns of Religion
– Hearth of the Judeo-Christian Tradition
• Jews and Christians trace their roots to the eastern
• Monotheism – belief in one God
– The Emergence of Islam
• Theocratic state – one in which religious leaders
(ayatollahs) guide policy; Iran is an example
Theocracy: Government where all laws are based on religious morals.
Globalization & Diversity:
Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
• The Quran is the central religious text of Islam,
which Muslims believe to be a revelation from
God. It is widely regarded as the finest piece
of literature in the Arabic language. Quranic
chapters are called suras and verses, ayahs
Economic and Social Development: Lands of
Wealth and Poverty
• The Geography of Fossil Fuels
• Oil unevenly distributed in the area
– Saudi Arabia, Iran, U.A.E., Libya, Algeria contribute
significantly to oil production, while Morocco and Sudan
have few developed petroleum reserves
– This region has 7% of the world’s population; holds 68%
of the world’s proven petroleum reserves
• Regional Economic Patterns
– Higher-Income Oil Exporters
– Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, U.A.E.
– Cultural landscape reshaped because of oil wealth
– Not all benefit – rural Shiite Muslims and foreign workers
Globalization & Diversity:
Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
• Egyptian hieroglyphs were a formal writing
system used by the ancient Egyptians that
combined logographic and alphabetic
elements. Egyptians used cursive hieroglyphs
for religious literature on papyrus and wood.
• Yahweh is the name of the god of the ancient
Hebrews composed of four Hebrew
consonants (YHWH, known as the
Tetragrammaton) which the prophet Moses is
said to have revealed to his people.
The Arab Spring
• Within days, protests started popping up across
the country, calling upon President Zine El
Abidine Ben Ali and his regime to step down.
About a month later, he fled. The momentum
in Tunisia set off uprisings across the Middle East
that became known as the Arab Spring (2010).
• Social media, such as Facebook, was used
extensively and ultimately helped to unite the
people to exact change in their governments.
Judaic Worship
• The synagogue is the Jewish equivalent of a
church, more or less. It is the center of the
Jewish religious community: a place of prayer,
study and education, social and charitable
work, as well as a social center.
• Judaism, Islam, and Christianity are all
monotheistic religions, which means that they
all worship a single deity.
Climate Map of Southwest Asia & N Africa (Fig. 7.7)
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis,
Price, Wyckoff
The Eastern Mediterranean
North Africa
Exam Review (Part II)
North Africa
Strait of Gibraltar links the Mediterranean Sea with the Atlantic Ocean
**Memorize the countries in North Africa**
The Sahara Desert
World’s largest desert (located in North Africa)
The Sahel
• The Sahel is the narrow, flat, semi-arid plain
located between the Sahara and the southern
Sudanian savannas.
Nile River
The only river in the world that constantly
flows north.
Central to early Egyptian civilization.
Longest river by mileage in the entire world.
Globalization & Diversity:
Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
Human Geography of North Africa
North Africa
Society and Culture Today
•The Muslim religion is the dominant faith
in North Africa.
•Arabic is the dominant language in the
region, with French used in some areas
as a result of colonization (e.g. Algiers,
Arab Spring Movement
• The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government protests,
uprisings and armed rebellions that spread across the
Middle East in early 2011. Led to new governments being
elected in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia. (Started in Tunisia).