Chapter Five Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity 509 B.C. - 476 A.D. Section One The Roman World Takes Shape In a republic, power is held by the people. Their elected representatives run the government. When Lincoln said that we “highly resolve” … “that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth,” he meant that our republic must be preserved. This is the only known photograph of Lincoln taken at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Ancient Romans spoke Latin. In Latin “res publica” means “that which belongs to the people.” In a republic, the people chose some of the officials. The ancient Romans hoped that a republican form of government would prevent any individual from gaining too much power. Vaishali is a small village in northern India. It is surrounded by mango groves and rice fields. In the Sixth century B.C., King Vishal ruled there. The Vaishali created what historians now believe was the world’s first democratic republic. Vaishali had an elected assembly of representatives. Today Vaishali is an archeological site. This is the lion atop the two thousand year old Vaishali Pillar of Asoka. The lion faces north, the direction the Buddha took on his last voyage. This pillar was discovered, with the lion capital still jutting out of the ground, in 1969. Ancient Rome was a republic. It was not organized into city-states. This is The Oath of the Horatii, painted by Jacques-Louis David in 1784. It shows a group of sons, triplets, swearing to their father that they will defend the Roman Republic to the death. Ancient Rome’s most important long-term contributions are found in our modern governments and laws. The Roman state lasted for a thousand years. The Romans established their republic in 509 B.C. This global view shows the Roman Empire at its height, at about 117 A.D. In the early years of Rome’s Republic, the Senate made the laws and controlled the government. This is Cesare Maccari’s Cicero Denounces Catiline, a fresco from 1889. In this scene Cicero stands at left. Catiline, an ambitious soldier and a senator, sits at far right. Catiline had attempted to overthrow the Roman Republic with an army of ten thousand. In the beginning of the Roman Republic, the Senate had three hundred members. All of the members of the Roman Senate were Patricians. This is a marble sculpture of a Roman man holding the busts of his ancestors. It is from the late First century B.C. The importance Romans attached to family is evident in this sculpture. Patricians were Rome’s wealthy landowners. According to an ancient Roman legend, the first one hundred men appointed as senators were referred to as “fathers,” or “patres” in Latin. The descendants of those men became the patrician class. Sometimes, when Rome was in danger, the senate would appoint a dictator. A dictator is a ruler who has complete control over a government. Each Roman dictator was granted power to rule for six months. After that time, he had to give up power. Romans particularly admired their dictator Cincinnatus. Cincinnatus organized an army, led the Romans to victory over the attacking enemy, attended victory celebrations, and returned to his farmlands - all within fifteen days. This is Juan Antonio Ribera’s Cincinnatus Leaves the Plow for the Roman Dictatorship, from about 1806. Plebeians were the farmers, merchants, and artisans who made up most of Rome’s population. In the beginning of the Roman Republic, Plebeians had the rights of citizenship - but little influence. From 495 through 493 B.C. Rome’s Plebeians left the city in protest. They went to Monte Sacro (the sacred mountain), just outside of the city. The Patricians had to share political power with the Plebeians to bring them back. This is Barloccini’s engraving, Secession of the Plebeians to the Monte Sacro, from 1849. In 180 B.C., the Romans enacted a law that formalized the career path of Roman officials. It was called the cursus honorum. The cursus honorum became the foundation of a Roman political system. The cursus honorum was a great benefit to the ancient Romans. It allowed the most capable Romans to become leaders in the government, even if they did not have popularity or influence. and now… some more final exam questions… Which civilizations were organized into city-states? a) Ancient Greece and Mayans b) Rome and Egypt c) Phoenicia and India d) Ancient China and Ghana Which civilizations were organized into city-states? a) Ancient Greece and Mayans b) Rome and Egypt c) Phoenicia and India d) Ancient China and Ghana Important long-term contributions of Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations are primarily found in the area of a) government and law. b) military technology. c) religious doctrine. d) economic policy. Important long-term contributions of Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations are primarily found in the area of a) government and law. b) military technology. c) religious doctrine. d) economic policy.