The 8 Parts of Speech 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Adjective Adverb Conjunction Interjection Noun Preposition Pronoun Verb Adjectives Proper: Florida oranges Articles: a, an, the Demonstrative: this, that, these, those Comparative: compares two things or people: larger Superlative: compares more than two things or people: largest Adjectives describe a noun They answer 3 questions: Which one How many What kind Examples: blue, tall, three, a, the, that Adverbs describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb Adverbs tell: How When, Where Why and under what circumstances. Examples: grandly, later, downstairs, because Adverbs The comparative form of an adverb compares two actions or things. Example: slower The superlative form of an adverb compares more than two actions or things. Example: slowest Conjunction a word that joins words or groups of words in a sentence 3 Types 1. Coordinating- combine subjects, predicates and compound sentences Examples: and, but, or 2. Correlative- used in pairs Examples: either, or; neither, nor 3. Subordinating- begin a subordinate clause Examples: because, as, although, after, as though, as if, as long as, as soon as, before, even though, if, in order that, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, where, wherever, whether, while Interjection Noun a word or group of words that expresses strong feeling names a person, place, thing, or idea Common Interjections Aha, great, oh, phew, Awesome, ha, oh, no, Common: names any person, place, thing or idea Proper: names a specific person, place, thing, or idea Singular: names one person, place, thing, or idea Plural: names more than one person, place, thing or idea Collective: names a group of people or things Possessive: names who or what has something Concrete: a noun that you can experience with one of your five senses Abstract: ideas Preposition Pronoun a word that relates a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence takes the place of a noun aboard about above across after against along amid among around as at before behind below beneath beside between beyond by despite down during except for from in inside into like near of off on onto opposite out outside over past since through to toward under until up upon with without Antecedent: Example: Jason is eleven. He is in the sixth grade. Jason is the noun that he refers to. Personal: refers to people or things Verb Pronoun Subject: personal pronoun used as the subject Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they Object: personal pronoun used as the direct or indirect object of a verb Examples: me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them Possessive: shows ownership Examples: my, your, her his, our, your, their, its Indefinite: does not refer to a particular person, place, thing or idea Examples: each, one, much, both, few, everyone, many Reflexive and intensive: ends in self Example: herself Demonstrative: used as the subject Example: This is the one. the noun that the pronoun refers to. Action verbs: name an action Direct object: answers whom? or what after an action verb Example: Sightseers paid the fees. Transitive: has a direct object. Example: Shelia read a book about Africa. Intransitive: does not have a direct object. Example: Sheila read in a great hurry. Indirect object: answers to whom or for whom after an action verb Example: Sightseers paid the guides fees. Verb Linking verb: connects the subject of a sentence with a noun or adjective in the predicate Predicate noun/nominative: a noun that follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is Example: Zambia is a country. Predicate adjective: an adjective that follows a linking verb and tells what the subject is like Example: Zambia is large. Verb Common linking verbs: be become seem appear feel taste grow look Verb phrase: two verbs together Example: I am learning. Helping verb: 1st verb in a verb phrase Example: I am learning. Main verb: 2nd verb in a verb phrase Example: I am learning. Kinds of Sentences Sentence: a group of words that expresses a complete thought 2 Parts Subject: names whom or what the sentence is about Predicate: tells what the subject does or has Simple subject: one word Simple predicate: the verb Complete subject: includes all of the words in the subject Complete predicate: includes all of the words in the predicate of the sentence Sentences 4 Kinds of Sentences Declarative: ends in a period and makes a statement Interrogative: ends with a question mark and asks something Exclamatory: ends with an exclamation point and shows strong feeling Imperative: ends with a period and commands someone to do something Preposition a word that relates a noun or a pronoun to some other word in a sentence Prepositional phrase: a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun Example: Take the book to the library. Object of the preposition: the noun or pronoun at the end of a prepositional phrase Example: Take the book to the library. Paragraph Content and Organization Main idea: the big idea or most important idea Topic Sentence: expresses the main idea; is usually the first sentence of the paragraph Supporting idea: a fact that helps to prove the main idea Supporting detail: fact that helps to prove both the main idea and the supporting ideas Unifying idea: a logical flow of ideas demonstrated through the topic sentence Transitional words and phrases- connectors; special words that help show how ideas are related Example: first, last, mainly, also, although, as a result, second, in conclusion Extraneous/Irrelevant details: details that do not belong in the paragraph because they do not support the topic Redundant details: details that restate the same thing already stated Clincher- the last sentence of the paragraph Punctuation Appositives a noun that is placed next to another noun to identify it or add information about it Usually in commas Example: James Madison’s wife, Dolly, was a famous first lady. Appositive phrase- a group of words that includes an appositive and other words that modify the appositive Example: Madison, our fourth president, held many other offices. Semicolon- ; Use a semicolon to join the main clauses of a compound sentence if they are not joined by a conjunction Example: Jason is sixteen; he will get his driver’s license soon. Colon: Use a colon to indicate time, to introduce a list of items that ends a sentence, and after the salutation of a business letter Examples: 12:33 Dear Sir: Please send the following students: Homonyms Words that sound alike or are spelled alike but have different meanings. Homograph: spelled alike but have different meanings Example: I saw the cat. The saw is broken. Homophone: sound alike but have different spellings and different meanings. Example: I know you saw that. He said no. Figurative Language Simile: compares two things using like or as Metaphor: compares two things without using like or as Personification: giving animals or things human qualities Onomatopoeia: imitates the sound it describes (boom pow) Idioms: Hyperbole: extreme exaggeration (your mama jokes) Mood/Tone: the atmosphere/how the author makes you feel Alliteration: repeating the same consonant sound over and over (tongue twister) Idiom: meaning is other than the literal meaning of the words (inside out) Elements of Fiction Fiction: writing invented by the author Setting: time and place of the story Characters: protagonist and antagonist Point of View: vantage point (1st person or third person) Theme: main message or moral of story Plot: series of related events that happen in the story Conflict: struggle or problem between characters in a story The Research Process 1.Choose a topic- narrow the topic and make sure enough information is available 2.Gather information- do research using several sources 3.Use resources effectively- create source cards and note cards 4.Organize notes- create an outline and organize all of your notes 5.Write the report- follow the steps in the writing process 6.Compile a bibliography- list all of the sources used in creating the report The Research Process Internet- network of interconnected computer networks to transmit data (information super highway) Search engine: used to locate web sites on the internet (Google) Keyword: word entered to search for web sites Encyclopedia- a comprehensive reference work containing articles on a wide range of subjects or on numerous aspects of a particular field, usually arranged in alphabetical order Dictionary- a reference book containing an alphabetical list of words, with information given for each word, usually including meaning, pronunciation, and etymology Atlas- a book or bound collection of maps, sometimes with supplementary illustrations and graphic analyses Almanac- a usually annual reference book composed of various lists, tables, and often brief articles relating to a particular field or many general fields The Research Process The Research Process Title page- contains info on the title and author Index- an alphabetical list of names, places, and subjects treated in a printed work, giving the page or pages on which each item is mentioned Glossary- a list of often difficult or specialized words with their definitions often placed at the back of a book Thesaurus- a book of synonyms, often including related and contrasting words and antonyms Table of contents- a list of the parts of a book or document organized in the order in which the parts appear Periodicals: magazine published on a regular basis Footnotes/endnotes: citation at the end of the page Card Catalog: cards containing information on where to find books and information in a library Newspaper: published on a daily basis, contains current events, opinions and advertisements. www: world wide web E-mail: mail sent electronically over the internet Database: a large collection of information usually in a computer Plagiarize: using another author’s work as your own Paraphrase-re-word or put into your own words Summarize- give a brief synopsis of a passage Legend- key to understanding a map Sentences Fragment: does not express a complete thought. It may be missing a subject, a predicate, or both. Run-on: two or more sentences incorrectly written as one sentence. Simple: contains a main clause (can stand by itself) Example: Nat boarded the ship. Compound: two simple sentences, or two main clauses, combined by a conjunction Example: Nat boarded the ship, and the crowd waved. Complex: has one main clause and one or more subordinate clause (cannot stand alone) Example: The captain spoke to Nat, who had boarded the ship. Compound Complex: two main clauses and a subordinate clause Example: Stacy is smart and she is going to college because she applies herself. The Writing Process 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prewriting: collect ideas, brainstorm Drafting: start writing sentences/paragraphs Revising: putt the draft into final form Editing/Proofreading: correct errors in grammar, publish the writing Publishing/Presenting: type and present writing Sentences Clauses and Complex Sentences Clause: group of words that has a subject and a predicate and is used as a sentence or part of a sentence 2 Types of Clauses 1. Main clause (independent clause): can stand alone Example: Mason watched television. 2. Subordinate clause (dependent clause): cannot stand alone Example: while doing his homework. Adjective Clause: modifies a noun or pronoun (tells which one, how many, and what kind) Example: The boys that won the contest are now in Hollywood. Adverb Clause: modifies the verb in the main clause of the sentence (tells when, where, how, why, or under what conditions) Example: Before you can go, you have to clean up your room.