PHR 200 Notes
1. What causes the common cold? What are the symptoms? How is it usually treated? Is the
underlying cause of the illness treated or are only its symptoms treated?
a. A common cold is a virus. The symptoms are a cough, runny nose, watery eyes, sneezing,
and sore throat. To treat it would be Tylenol, Ibuprofen, and tissues. The symptoms are
being treated.
b. Teacher answer: Rhinovirus, treated by symptoms
2. What causes influenza? What are the symptoms and how is it generally treated?
a. Influenza is caused by a virus. Symptoms are fever, vomiting, cold and hot sweat,
diarrhea. Antibiotics, Tylenol, ibuprofen, and tissues treat it.
3. What is pneumonia? What causes it? What is its relationship to influenza and the common cold?
a. Pneumonia is buildup of fluid and inflammation in the lungs. Bacteria and virus causes it.
They both make you ill, they can kill you, they all have similar symptoms and they are all
caused by viruses.
4. What is an antibiotic?
a. A medicine that destroys microorganisms
5. Explain the mode of action of azithromycin and the reason for its selective toxicity.
a. (Student) Stops growth of bacteria by decreasing the growth of protein
b. (Teacher) Bacteriocidal: drug kills bacteria
Bacteriostatic: drug stops bacterial
6. Explain what is meant by the therapeutic index of a medication.
a. The larger the therapeutic index the safer the drug is, the smaller the therapeutic drug is
the more dangerous the drug is. NTI Small changes in dose has large effects. (Will cover
in depth in PHR 209)
7. (A) Define a “conversion factor” and provide an example of it. (B) Using a suitable example,
explain how the conversion factor you provided can be used in a calculation
a. The manufacturing cost of products vs cost of raw material. Example is buying the drug
from Wal-Mart vs the immediate source.
b. (1 kg= 2.2 lbs
1 inch = 2.54 cm
1 km= 1000 m
1 tsp= 5 ml)
8. Explain how 2 conversion factors can be used in a calculation
a. 17 lbs 40 mg/ kg/ day
40 mg
9. What unit is the baby’s temperature in? Explain.
a. It is Fahrenheit, it explains in the article that the temperature is around 100, but in
Celsius the baby’s temperature would be 212 °F, so he would be dead.
b. 9(100)= 5F-160
900= 5F-160
1060= 5F
F= 212
10. Explain how temperatures can be interconverted between Fahrenheit and Celsius.
a. 9c= 5F-160
11. Explain how weights can be introverted between lbs and kg.
a. Take the pounds and divide by 2.2 to get kilograms. 17 lbs baby / 2.2 = 7.7.
Flu vaccine (shot) will
not give you the flu
Common Cold
Cough, sore throat,
runny nose, watery
eyes, sneezing
Fluid in lungs
Viral Gastroenteritis
Frequently called
stomach flu
Bacteria or viral
Not influenza
Flu mist is an
attenuated live vaccine
Fever, chills, fatigue, HA
 Similar s/ sx
Viral infection
Characterized by:
Nausea and vomiting,
Treatments (Tx)
Tamiflu, symptomatic
Symptomatic, rest
Antibiotics of bacterial
symptomatic if viral
Antibiotics kill or weaken bacteria
Jane Doe
.|-  :|= po Q6H prn
Refill 0
Fred Smith
Take 1 to 2 drops by mouth every 6 hours as needed
11 day supply
Yes, the prescription is good for 1 year.
Day supply =
Amount taken per day
^ Assume max dose
# days
Amount dispensed
Always round down