Presentation 12.9.2013 - International Metropolis Conference

Data on Irregular Migration
Human Smuggling and Development
Frank Laczko
Head, Migration Research Division,
International Organization for Migration
International Metropolis Conference,
9 – 13 September 2013, Tampere, Finland
Key question
• “What we measure affects what we do” (Stiglitz, Sen,
Fitoussi (2010) Mismeasuring Our Lives).
• Can we really speak of human development and
societal progress when a high number of
migrants are marginalized, exploited, victims of
trafficking, or human smuggling?
• This question not always asked by the
development community because migration is
often not factored into national, regional and
global development frameworks.
International Organization for Migration
Global policy attention focused on linkages
between migration and development: HLD
October 2013.
International data on irregular migration limited,
and tend to reflect security concerns.
Case for better irregular migration and
development indicators.
International Organization for Migration
Irregular migration and development: HLD 2013
• Second-ever High-level Dialogue on International
Migration and Development, October 2013;
• Round Table 2 focuses on rights of migrants,
smuggling and trafficking, orderly safe migration;
• IOM, UNDESA, UNFPA organized 5 meetings to
prepare delegates for the HLD;
• Final report: Towards the 2013 High-Level Dialogue
on International Migration and Development (IOM,
International Organization for Migration
HLD 2013
Four plenary meetings and four interactive roundtables:
Human rights of
migrants, esp.
women and
trafficking and
Effects of
migration on
development /
post 2015
and cooperation,
integration of
migration into
and regional
labour mobility
and its impacts
on development
International Organization for Migration
EC 2013: Maximising the
development impact of migration
• Brief but important reference to irregular migration, but no
data presented and recommendations don’t address data
• “It is crucial that irregular migrants be treated with dignity
and are not criminalised.”
• “Migrants in an irregular situation are often more
vulnerable to exploitation and abuse.”
• “Irregular migration limits the potential of migrants to
support their countries of origin and increases likelihood of
negative development outcomes for destination countries.”
International Organization for Migration
ICPD+20 and irregular migration
1994 Programme of Action adopted by 179 governments
recommends States:
• To reduce substantially the number of undocumented
migrants, while ensuring that those in need of
international protection receive it;
• To prevent the exploitation of undocumented migrants and
ensure that their basic human rights are protected.
• In 2014, UNFPA will report on progress to UN General
International Organization for Migration
Irregular migration and the UN post-2015
development agenda
Beyond the MDGs – Intense discussions about future
shape of the global development agenda;
Should migration be factored into the UN post-2015
development agenda? If so, how?
Is it possible to develop goals, targets, and indicators to
monitor the impact of irregular migration on
“Migration and the UN Post-2015 Agenda”, 6 essays
make case for integrating migration into the post-2015
agenda(IOM, 2013).
International Organization for Migration
Data challenges:
Defining irregular migration
Irregular migration:
“Movement that takes place outside the regulatory
norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries.
There is no clear or universally accepted definition of
irregular migration. From the perspective of
destination countries it is entry, stay or work in a
country without the necessary authorization or
documents required under immigration regulations….”
(IML Glossary on Migration, 2nd Edition).
International Organization for Migration
Data challenges:
Defining smuggling and trafficking
“The procurement, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or
other material benefit, of the illegal entry of a person into a State Party of
which the person is not a national or a permanent resident” (Art 3(a)
Smuggling Protocol).
“The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of
persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion,
of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position
of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to
achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the
purpose of exploitation” (Art 3(a) Trafficking Protocol).
International Organization for Migration
Smuggled migrants:
Less often seen as victims
• When contrasted with the protection and assistance
provisions of the Trafficking Protocol, the Smuggling
Protocol is notably thin in the protection it provides.
– Trafficking: victims, viewed from a human rights lens;
– Smuggling: irregular migrants, seen as complicit in
criminal activity or are criminals themselves.
• Resultantly, protection needs of smuggled migrants
might be overlooked, notwithstanding that victims of
trafficking and smuggled migrants may have similar
International Organization for Migration
Global and regional trends: Irregular migration
• Up to 32 million people (10-15% of international migrants)
globally in irregular situations (IOM, 2010);
• Around 30 to 40 million irregular migrants globally (15-20% of
international migrants (UN DESA).
• Some regional estimates:
– 1.9 – 3.8 million estimated to be in EU27 (CLANDESTINO, 2009);
– 73,000 illegal border crossings on EU external borders (down 49%
from 2011) (Frontext, 2013);
– Roughly 11 million irregular migrants in U.S. in 2011, down from 12
million in 2007 (Pew Research Center, 2013);
– Some estimate that “well over” 50% of migrants in Latin America and
Africa are thought to be irregular (UNDP, 2009).
International Organization for Migration
Irregular migration in the EU
International Organization for Migration
Global trends: Smuggling
• Globally 700,000 to 4 million smuggled each year
(Momsen, 2004);
• Some 55,000 migrants are
thought to be smuggled
from East, North and West
Africa into Europe every
year (UNODC, 2013);
• Overall, detections of
“facilitators of irregular
migration” has been falling
since 2008, totalling about
7,700 in 2012 (Frontex,
International Organization for Migration
Better data on irregular migration
• No global monitoring mechanism, but data and
monitoring of irregular migration, trafficking and
smuggling have improved:
• Trafficking in Persons Reports (USG, since 2001) and
Global Report on Trafficking in Persons (UNODC,
since 2006);
• IOM Counter Trafficking Module (CTM) (since 2000);
• Frontex Data shared – 8 comparable indicators.
International Organization for Migration
IOM data on irregular migration: Examples
• Unique trafficking database (CTM Database)
– primary data for 20,000 beneficiaries in 85 source
and 100 destination countries (Dec. 2012)
– Trafficked at sea: The exploitation of Ukrainian
– Researching traffickers.
• AVR data
– Assisted 88,829 migrants in 2012.
• Migration profiles for more than 40 countries
International Organization for Migration
Data Challenges
• Global figures largely based on estimates;
• Research on smuggling focused mainly on Western Europe and
North America (UNODC, 2011);
• Focus primarily on South-North irregular migration which only
accounts for approx. 40% of migration (World Migration Report
• National laws and definitions of human smuggling vary
considerably, making data comparisons difficult;
• Irregular migration indicators tend to say more about numbers
of persons apprehended or returned; less about exploitation and
well-being of “undocumented migrants”.
International Organization for Migration
Frontex data
• Detections of illegal border-crossing between
• Detection of illegal border-crossing at BCPs
• Detections of suspected facilitators
• Detections of illegal stay
• Refusals of entry
• Asylum applications
• Document fraud
• Return of illegally staying third country nationals
International Organization for Migration
Irregular Migration and Development: New
Report in progress
• Preparation of a global report on irregular
migration and development.
• Purpose: contribution to debate regarding
integration of migration into the post-2015
development agenda and assessment of ICPD
• To be prepared in partnership with civil
society and relevant agencies.
International Organization for Migration
Irregular migration and
development framing the issues
• Broader focus needed. Keep in mind that for
example in EU «majority of migrants with
irregular status within the European Union are
those issued an entry permit, enter regularly
and then overstay their visa, (Crepeau, 2013).
• What to measure ?
• - negative impacts of irregular migration on
rights of migrants.
• - positive impacts ? remittances and reduced
pressure on labour markets at home ?
International Organization for Migration
Possible irregular migration and
development indicators
• Coherence or irregular migration and
development policy responses.
• Number of rights conventions signed;
• Return and reintegration;
• Migrants in crisis situations;
• Migrant victims of labour and human rights
abuses, trafficking; detention; workplace.
• Migrant well-being indicators.
International Organization for Migration
Irregular Migration and Development
Report: Outline
• Concepts/definitions
• Data sources and trends
• Regional perspectives; South-South migration.
• Vulnerable groups
• Review of legislation and policy approaches
• Innovative policy responses
International Organization for Migration
Concluding remarks
Current renewed interest in the linkages between
migration and development, and the future
shape of the global development agenda, provide
an opportunity to focus more international
attention on the needs of vulnerable irregular
Better irregular migration and development
indicators can help to inform current policy
International Organization for Migration
Frank Laczko
Head, Migration Research Division,
International Organization for Migration,
International Organization for Migration