Chapter 1 Educational Technology in Context: The Big Picture Media and Audio-Visual Four Perspectives that Computer Systems Define Educational Technology Educational Technology Vocational Training Instructional Systems and Design What History of Educational Technology Has Taught Us 1. Technology is not a panacea. 2. Literacy offers limited rationale. 3. Teachers are not developers. What History Has Taught Us (continued) 4. Possible doesn't equal desirable, feasible, or inevitable. 5. Change is too fast to keep up with. 6. Older technologies can be useful. 7. Teachers always will be important. Rationale for Technology Use Motivates Provides Unique Instructional Capabilities Supports New Instructional Approaches Increases Teacher Productivity Required Skills for an Information Age Why Use Technology? Influence student academic performance Develop higher order thinking and problem solving Improve student motivation, attitude, and interest in learning Help to prepare students for the workforce Address the needs of low performing, atrisk, and learning disabled students Center for Applied Research in Educational Technology (CARET) http://caret.iste.edu When Does Technology Work? Directly supports the curriculum objectives Provides opportunities for student collaboration Adjusts for student ability and prior experiences, and provides feedback Is integrated into the instructional day Provides opportunities for students to design and implement projects Is used in environments where teachers, the school community, and the district support the use of technology Issues in Education and Technology Societal Legal/Ethical Educational Cultural Societal Issues • Economic conditions • Anti-technology positions • Impact of No Child Left Behind Act Educational Issues • Standards movement • Reliance on Internet and Distance Education • Debate over directed vs. inquiry based/constructivist instructional methods Cultural & Ethnic Issues • Digital Divide • Racial and gender equity • Special Needs Legal and Ethical Issues • Viruses/Hacking • Plagiarism • Privacy/Safety • Copyright • Illegal download/Software piracy Emergent Trends • Wireless connectivity • Merging of technologies • Portable devices • High-speed communication • Visual immersion systems • Intelligent applications • Podcasting Implications of New Technologies • Flexible learning environments • Adaptable assessment options • Reliance on distance learning • Support for people with disabilities Chapter 2 Foundations of Effective Technology Integration Models: Theory and Practice Technology Integration Planning Model Essential Conditions Learning Theories Learning Theories as Bases for Integration Models Integrated Directed Constructivist Directed Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base • Behaviorist theory • Learning as a stimulus-response • Reinforcement/rewards • Mastery learning • Information-processing theory B.F. Skinner • The mind as a computer • Atkinson and Shiffrin • Sensory registers; short term & long term memory Directed Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base (continued) • Cognitive-behaviorist theory • Providing optimal conditions for learning • Robert Gagné • Events of instruction • Systems theory and systematic instructional design • Managing the complexity of teaching • State goals & objectives; sequencing • Gagné, Briggs, Mager Robert Gagné Gagné Instructional Events 1. Gain attention 2. State objectives 3. Stimulate recall of former learning 4. Present new material 5. Provide learning guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance retention/transfer Inquiry-based Technology Integration Strategies: Theoretical Base • Social activism theory •Learning as a social experience •Growth through hands on activities •Curriculum from students’ interests • Scaffolding theory John Dewey •Learning as a cognitive building process •Build upon previous knowledge •Zone of proximal development •Adults & children perceive the world differently Lev Vygotsky Inquiry-based Technology Integration Strategies Theoretical Base (continued) • Child development theory • Stages of development Jean Piaget • Sensorimotor; preoperational; concrete & formal operational • Instructional support for child development • Discovery learning • Cognitive growth via interaction w/environment • Multiple Intelligences theories • Role of intelligence in learning • Howard Gardner Howard Gardner Jerome Bruner Multiple Intelligences 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Linguistic Logical-mathematical Musical Spatial Bodily-kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic* Existential* (meaning of life) Technology Integration Strategies Based on Each Model Directed Models Constructivist Models remedy identified weakness or skill deficits Both foster creative problem solving and metacognition promote fluency or automaticity of prerequisite generate motivation to learn allow for multiple intelligences provide efficient, self-paced instruction optimize scare personnel and material resources build mental models and increase knowledge transfer remove logistical hurdles to learning support self-paced review of concepts foster group cooperation develop information literacy and visual literacy skills Essential Conditions for Technology Integration Shared Vision Technical Assistance Trained Personnel Standards and Curriculum Support Access Portfolio • Assessment – Students – Growth over time – Accomplishments – Competence in specific content areas • Professional – Accomplishments – Competence – Potential – Avoid showing “growth over time” Standards • Everything we teach must be based upon standards • ISTE: NETS*T & NETS*S • ODE: Academic Content Standards • ALA: Info Lit Stds • ODE: Professional Teaching Stds. Instructional Methods • Direct or Directed – – – – Teacher centered Transmit knowledge Knowledge is objective (already exists) Behaviorist learning theory • Constructivist – Students learn via interaction with their environment – Student centered – Students develop their own meaning via their experiences – Cognitive learning theory Digital Divide • Discrepancy in access to technology resources among various socioeconomic groups • Other reasons account for the divide as well – Gender, cultural, geographic location, etc.