The Introduction of the King Para. 3-27

The Annunciation of the Birth of Yeshua to
Para 9
Here we switch over to Matthew’s account and the
narrative is given from Joseph’s perspective
Emphasis is place on the virgin birth:
1. vs. 18 – “before they came together
2. vs. 23 – quote of Isaiah 7:14 (this reveals how Isaiah
was understood in the 1st century
3. vs. 25 – no sexual relationship until after Yeshua
was born (Miriam had at leas 6 more
Joseph after learning of Miriam’s pregnancy considered
divorcing her privately
Message of the angel to Joseph focuses attention on three
1. Fulfill the marriage vow
2. Believe Miriam’s story
3. All this is according to God’s plan
vs. 21 – call his name Yeshua (‫“ = )ישוע‬save his people from
their sin
The Birth of the King
Para. 10
Based on Luke & Matthew, and the historical record of
Josephus we can pinpoint the year of Messiah’s birth to
within 2 years
This is deduced from 4 clues:
1. Herod the Great dies in 4 BC
Thus, Yeshua must have been born sometime
before 4 BC
2. The Decree of Quirinas was issued in 8 BC
Thus, Yeshua was born after the decree. Because of
the decree Joseph & Miriam travel from Nazareth
to Bethlehem
3. Josephus – Herod left Jerusalem in 5 BC and went
to Jericho never to return to Jerusalem; Jericho is
where Herod died
The Magi came to Herod before he left for Jericho
4. Para. 14 – By the time the Magi arrive in Bethlehem
Yeshua is almost 2 years old
Conclusion: Yeshua was born between 7-6 BC
The tax spoken of here is a land tax. Evidently Joseph
owned property in Bethlehem
The Announcement to the Shepherds
Para. 11
vs. 8 – “shepherds in the field”
Some say Yeshua could not have been born on Dec.
25th because one can’t have sheep in the field in Dec.
Rainfall in Israel – End of Oct-Feb much rain
March – rain begins to taper off
April – rain dies out
Mid-April-mid Oct. – no rain
Dec. – Israel is a carpet of green
We don’t have enough information to know when
Yeshua was born – may have been Dec. 25th but we don’t
Shekinah appears – an angel tells the shepherds:
1. vs. 10 – Do not be afraid of what you are seeing
2. vs. 11 – The Savior has just been born
Israel has had many saviors (the Judges)
3. vs. 12 – This Savior is the Messianic Savior
-Go find the child – How would they know which child
born is the right child?
vs. 12 – “sign” – something out of the ordinary
Two elements in the sign:
1. The Messianic Savior will be wrapped in swaddling
cloth - burial cloth
2. The Messianic Savior will be lying in a manger
Don’t look in private homes but in stable-caves in the
hill country of Judah
Caves were used for burials and there they would store
burial cloths
Why in stable-caves? There was no room in the inn
Messiah was found wrapped in burial cloth on both the
first and last days of his life
The purpose of his birth – he was born not to live but to
vs. 13 – Multitude of angels appear
Two-fold message concerning God
1. Glory to God in the highest
2. Peace to those with whom God is well pleased
vs. 14 – angels make a proclamation – the text does not
say they sang
vs. 15-20 – First recorded Jewish worship of the Messiah
Initiated by means of the Shekinah Glory
vs. 19 – Miriam kept all these things in her heart
Later she will relate them to Luke
The Circumcision
Para. 12
Overarching Theme: What happens to the herald
happens to the King
Like John – though Joseph & Miriam know what the
name of the Messiah is to be, they do not officially
give him his name until eight days after the birth at
his circumcision
Circumcision is commanded under two Jewish Old
Testament Covenants
Those Obligated
Jewish People Only Sign of Jewishness
Jews and Gentiles
Submission to the
Messiah’s death brings the Mosaic Law to an end
No reason to practice circumcision with respect to the
Book of Galatians – Paul warns if you submit to
circumcision with respect to the Law you are to keep
the entire Law
Messiah’s death brings the Mosaic Law to an end for
both Jews and Gentiles
Abrahamic Covenant is an eternal covenant which
requires Jewish believers to circumcise their children on
the 8th day
Circumcision reveals the faith and obedience of the
parents, not the child
Baptism reveals the faith and obedience of the one being
baptized not the parents
Baptism is not the anti-type to circumcision. Baptism
shows the faith of the one being baptized
The anti-type for circumcision is not baptism but the
circumcision of the heart
The Presentation
Para. 13
vs. 22 – These events occur 40 days after Yeshua is born
Mosaic Law:
A woman who gives birth to a girl is unclean for 80
days and then is to undergo the cleansing process
If she gives birth to a son she is unclean for 40 days
and then undergoes the process of cleansing
Because Yeshua is Miriam’s first-born son she goes to the
temple for two basic reasons:
1. The ceremonial purification of the mother
The offering provided is a pair of turtledoves or two
young pigeons
a. One used for a sin offering
b. One used for a burnt offering
These offering reveal the economic status of Joseph
and Miriam
Joseph and Miriam were extremely poor for only the
poor were permitted to make the substitute for a lamb
or ram
Isaiah 11:1 – the House of David was reduced to a stump
2. For the redemption of the first-born
a. The first-born of humans and animals belonged to
the Lord
b. First-born of kosher animals offered up to the Lord
c. First-born of unclean animals – substitute sacrifice
d. First-born of males – payment of a price
Numbers 18:15-16 – 5 shekels
Luke then gives us a Jewish and Gentile perspective on
the presentation of Yeshua at the Temple
1. Member of the remnant of that day, a believer
2. God revealed to Simeon he would not die until he
saw Messiah
Simeon recognized the fulfillment of this promise in
this 40 day old baby
Simeon – Once Simeon sees the child he is ready to die
Note: Simeon’s play on words: “For my eyes have seen
thy salvation.”
‫ = ישוע‬salvation as a name
Yeshuah – Salvation – ‫ – ישועה‬salvation as a noun
Yeshua – Jesus –
“My eyes have seen your “Yeshua”/salvation”
vs. 32 – 1. Light to the Gentiles
2. Glory of your people Israel
vs. 34 – Simeon now says something negative to Miriam
1. The child will be a new point of division in the
Jewish faith
2. For those who believe in him it will be an “arising”
3. For those who do not believe in him he would be a
cause for a “falling”
Messiah will be a stone of stumbling and a rock of
vs. 35 – Miriam’s heart will be pierced as she sees those
among the people of Israel reject her son
And her heart will be pierced even deeper when she
sees her son hanging on the cross
Yet the death of Yeshua is essential for the hearts of
many to be revealed
Anna: The second encounter Luke records
Anna is the Anglicized form of the Hebrew name
She is described as:
1. A prophetess
2. The daughter of Phanuel
3. Of the tirbe of Asher
4. Quite old – over a century old
(she lived with her husband for 7 years and then
a widow for 84 years)
5. She recognizes this 40 day old child to be the
6. She deeply and devoutly worshipped the Lord
7. She was thankful
8. She told many others of Messiah’s coming
Those she told were the believing remnant
In Bethlehem
Para. 14
Magi – At least two, but we don’t know how many
When they came they caused all kinds of excitement
Probably more than two or three
Magi – “wise men” or astrologers (not kings)
They came from the east, Mesopotamia or Babylon
Their questions: “Where is he that is born king of the
Being Gentiles how would they know of the Messiah
Why would they want to come and worship him?
Gentile kings from the east knew of the God of Israel
and did not worship him. Why would these Gentiles
want to worship him now?
The thing that attracts the Magi’s attention is a star in
the east
5 things about this star in the east that reveals it is not an
ordinary star:
1. The star is referred to as “his star.” That is, the
Messiah’s star – uniquely Messiah’s star or his
private star
2. The star appears and disappears on at least two
occasions (vs. 3, 9,8)
3. The star moves from east to west (vs. 9)
4. The star moves from north to south
5. The star hovered over one particular home in
“Star” – Greek = “radiance,” or “brilliance”
The reference is to the Shekinah Glory
In the ancient world astronomy and astrology were
not different sciences or disciplines
Just as God used the profession of shepherds to find
the stable-cave; so now he uses the astronomer/
astrologer to follow the Shekinah Glory to the home
where Messiah is
Being Gentiles how would they know about the
Messianic king?
1. Daniel 9:24-27
Only prophet who gives the time table of Messiah’s
Daniel was not written in Israel but in Babylon
Half the book of Daniel is written in Aramaic the
language of the Babylonians
Two things recorded in the book of Daniel are
relevant to the account of the Magi in Matt. 2:
1. Daniel saved all the wise men of Babylon
(Dan. 2:2)
2. Daniel became the head of the school of
astrology in Babylonia (Dan. 2:48)
2. Balaam
A prophet of Babylonia – a Gentile in the east
(Numbers 22:5; Deut. 23:4)
Numbers 24:17 – “A star will come out of Jacob;
A scepter will rise out of Israel”
Balaam’s prophecy connects the coming Messiah with
two issues: 1. A Star
2. Kingship
The Magi go to Jerusalem because that is the capital of
Israel; the kingdom of the coming King
They were not familiar with the works of Micah and
thus did not know the prophecy of Messiah’s birthplace
Herod hearing of a rival king gathers the chief priests
and scribes to learn where the Messiah is to be born
Herod also wants to know when the star appeared to the
Herod learns the star appeared 2 years prior (Matt. 2:16)
How did the Magi know which child was the Messiah?
The star reappears (vs.9). It leads the Magi north to
vs. 9 -“stood over” or “hovered over” – the house where
Messiah was. The shekinah showed them where the
Messiah was
vs. 11 – no longer is Messiah in a stable-cave but a private
The first recorded Gentile worship (the Magi) and the
first recorded Jewish worship (the shepherds) was
initiated by the shekinah
The gifts the Magi brought:
1. Gold – symbol of kingship (Dan. 2)
Messiah is a king
2. Frankincense – symbol of deity (Lev. 3:2; 5:11)
Messiah is God
3. Myrrh – symbol of death and sacrifice (Mark 15:23;
John 19:39)
Magi return to Babylon on a different route
In Bethlehem
Para. 15
Herod the Great was known for his paranoia
1. He had killed 3 sons
2. He had killed Miriamni his favorite wife because he
believed she conspired to assassinate him
3. It was said that Caesar Augustus said, “It was safer
to be Herod’s pig then Herod’s son.”
Herod was a nominal convert to Judaism and as
as such did not eat pig
4. Here, he kills all the male children 2 years old and
younger. Why? That is when the star appeared to
the Magi (vs.16)
The gifts of the Magi become the means by which Joseph
and Miriam can live in Egypt: Gold
In Nazareth
Para. 16
An angel tells Joseph to leave Egypt for Israel
Herod dies and his inheritance is divided up between his
three sons:
Archelaus receives control of Judea and Samaria
Archelaus is a cruel overseer
At his crowning he had 3,000 Jews killed in the
Temple during Passover
Herod Antipas ruled in Galilee and was noted as a
milder ruler, so Joseph goes there
Galilee was looked down upon by the religious
No rabbinic schools were in Galilee at this time
The rabbis said, “If you want to gain wealth you go
north, if you want to gain wisdom you come south.”
Four Ways OT Prophecy is Interpreted
1. Literal Prophecy & Literal Fulfillment
Para. 14- Matt. 2:6 quoting Micah 5:2
Micah- Messiah to be born in Bethlehem of Judea
Matt.- Messiah was born in Bethlehem of Judea
2. Literal Prophecy & Typological Fulfillment
Para. 15- Matt. 2:15 quoting Hosea 11:1
Hosea- Refers to the Exodus and the deliverance of
Israel the national son of God (Ex. 4:22-23)
Matt.- Messianic Son returns from Egypt to Israel
3. Literal Prophecy & Application Fulfillment
Para 15- Matt. 2:17 quoting Jer. 31:15
Current event of Jeremiah’s own time
Israel taken into captivity to Babylon, the surviving
soldiers marched through Ramah (where Rachel is
buried) en route to Babylon
Rachel became a symbol of Jewish motherhood
Matt. applies Jeremiah’s statement to the Jewish
mothers mourning the death of their children in
In this usage of prophecy all the details can be different
except for one:
Jer.- the location is Ramah
Matt.- the location is Bethlehem
Jer.- sons taken into captivity
Matt.- sons killed
Jer.- sons are adult prisoners of war
Matt.- sons are 2 years and younger
The point of agreement between these two events is:
Weeping by Jewish mothers for the children they
will not see again
Another example: Joel 2 quoted in Acts 2
The point of similarity is: the outpouring of the Spirit
of God will be accompanied by unusual
4. Literal Prophecy & Summary Fulfillment
Para. 16- Matt. 2:23 referring to many prophets
No specific prophet is mentioned
No particular passage is in mind
Summarizes what the prophets taught
A Nazarene in the 1st century was looked down upon
Messiah would be “despised and rejected”
Judeans looked down upon Galileans and Galileans
looked down upon Nazarenes
These four ways of interpreting OT prophecy was the
common practice in Judaism of the 1st century
The technical term for the system of interpreting prophecy is
‫( פרדס‬pardes)
‫ = פ‬Pshat = Literal meaning of the text
‫ = ר‬Remez = “A hint” (stands for the literal/typological)
‫ = ד‬Drash = Exposition (that leads to application)
‫ = ס‬Sod = Secret (referring to summation)
His Growth
Para. 17
Luke focuses on the humanity of Yeshua
He alone provides a statement like this
Summarizes Yeshua’s development to 12 years of age
Yeshua’s home life:
1. Jewish home
2. Spiritual home (believing home; Scripture central)
3. 5 years: begin study of Scripture in Jewish school
4. 10 years: begin study of “oral law” (Jewish tradition)
5. 12 years: apprenticed in a profession
stay at home if learning the father’s profession
go to another to learn his profession
continue to study from 12-30 years when he would be
At 12 the decision is made regarding the direction the
Messiah would take
Isaiah speaks of the “Servant of the Lord”
Isa. 50:4-9 – Messiah’s mission
vs. 4 – Messiah is discipled by the Lord
vs. 5 – Messiah to endure physical suffering
vs. 6 – Messiah did not shield himself from the abuse
vs. 7-9 – Messiah strengthened by the Lord
With respect to Messiah’s divine nature – he knows
With respect to Messiah’s human nature – he was
taught by the Lord
By 12 Yeshua understood the Father’s will and calling
The Visit to Jerusalem
Para. 18
vs. 41 – Yeshua was raised in an observant home
3 times a year pilgrimage was to be made to Jerusalem:
1. Passover
2. Shavuoth
3. Sukkoth
It was customary to bring one’s child to Jerusalem for
Passover when the child turned 12, one year before his
bar mitzvah
In 1st century it was common to travel in groups
When returning to Nazareth from Jerusalem:
1. Joseph and Miriam travel one day not realizing that
Yeshua remained in Jerusalem – vs. 43
2. At the end of their day’s journey they realize Yeshua
is not with them – vs. 44
3. They then travel back to Jerusalem to look for
Yeshua – vs. 45
4. After looking for him for 3 more days they find him
When Miriam and Joseph find Yeshua he is in the
temple with the experts in the interpretation of the
Yeshua both understood what they were saying, and was
raising the right questions
All were amazed at his answers – God taught Yeshua
vs. 49 – Mary asks, “where were you?”
vs. 50 – Yeshua points out that God is his father. Thus,
he was in his Father’s house, the Temple
Miriam should have known where to find him – for he
is following in the occupation of his Father
At 12 a Jewish boy determines his vocation. Yeshua is
stating his “business,” or “vocation” is that of fulfilling
his Father’s will
By 12 Yeshua clearly recognizes the sonship relationship with
God the Father
His Development
Para. 19
vs. 51. – The Superior subjected himself to the inferior
Yeshua submitted himself to his mother and
vs. 52 – Yeshua developed: intellectually, physically,
spiritually, and socially
These are the same areas in which we all must