Unit 3 Timeline Figures David Livingstone Queen Victoria Karl Marx 1813-1873 A.D. Scottish missionary and African explorer who, with Sir Henry Morton Stanley, sought to discover the source of the Nile. Although hisbody lies in Westminster Abbey,his heart was buried in the Ilala District (Zambia), where he died. 1819-1901 A.D. Queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1837-1901) and empress of India (1876-1901) whose disciplined moral ethics and responsibility to duty affected the fundamental values of British society in the 19th century, 1818-1883 A.D. German revolutionary, economist, and philosopher, he is known as the founder of modern communism. His profoundly influential writings, The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital, formed the basis of communist thought. giving rise to the term “Victorian England.” Charles Darwin 1809-1882 A.D. British naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution is described in his Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. Rendering the Biblical Creation unnecessary, his theory became popular despite the lack of clear evidence. Recent discoveries in microbiology have renewed support for the design argument as a better explanation for the origins of life. French Foreign Legion 1831 A.D. A professional fighting unit composed of international volunteers, the Légion Étrangère was originally designed to serve as a military presence in France’s African colonies. Charles H. Spurgeon 1834-1892 A.D. English Baptist minister, who was first known as the “boy preacher” and then later as the “Price of the Preachers”. Known for his compelling preaching. He wrote more material than any other Christian author and is still changing lives today. British Abolition Act of 1833 A.D. British humanitarians fought to abolish slavery, successfully outlawing slave trade in 1807. Their work continued until the passing of the Abolition Act of 1833. Gradual abolition followed throughout all lands under British control. Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) Established in England 1844 A.D. Organized by British draper George Williams (1821- 1905), who desired to encourage Christian morality and offer educational and social activities, as well as provide shelter for the down and out. The association began including women in 1971. The American War Between the States April 1861-April 1865 A.D. Also called “The Civil War,” the conflict between the Northern Union states, and the Southern Confederate states marked a height of hostility due to states’ rights, differences over slavery, and the election of Abraham Lincoln as President. It pit brother against brother until its end, with the Union preserved and slavery abolished. Andrew Murray 1828-1917 A.D. Born in Graaff Reinet, South Africa, his Scottish family had emigrated to Africa, where his father pastored a church. Becoming a pastor himself, his prayers for revival were answered in 1860 with a physical manifestation of the Holy Spirit and many conversions. Samuel Morris 1872-1893 A.D. Born in Liberia as Prince Kaboo of the Kru tribe, he was surrendered to the Grebos to pay for “war taxes.” While being tortured, a blinding light from heaven told him to “Rise up and run.” He was led to missionaries who shared the gospel with him. He studied the Bible at Taylor University in the U.S. and revival spread wherever he shared his testimony. Scramble for Africa The Suez Canal Built in 1869 1877-1914 A.D. A rivalry of European powers to rapidly colonize Africa. Led by Britain and France, it included Belgium, Germany, and Italy. A ship canal in Egypt linking the Mediterranean Sea to the Gulf of Suez, and then to the Red Sea. Designed and built by French engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, it was under British control from 1875 until 1956, when Egyptian President Nasser nationalized it. In connection with the Six- Day War, Egypt blocked the canal in 1967, forcing its shut-down until 1975. Mary Slessor 1848-1919 A.D. Scottish missionary, whose calling led her to the Calabar coast of Africa and eventually to the Okoyong tribe, where she brought many to faith and drew them out of isolation. She rescued many twins from infanticide and became known as “Ma Slessor”. 1867 A.D. An act in which British parliament established the self-governing Dominion of Canada, uniting Canada East and West (now Quebec and Ontario), New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The federation was later joined by territories of the Hudson’s Bay Company, British Columbia, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland. Sir Henry Stanley 1841-1904 A.D. Welsh-born American journalist and explorer who traveled to Africa to find Dr. Livingstone. He then accompanied Livingstone on an expedition to find the source of the Nile. His greatest journey trailed the Congo’s course across Africa from Zanzibar to the Atlantic. He was influential in the establishment of the Congo Free State for Belgium. 1853-1856 A.D. A conflict between Russia and a group of nations, which included Britain, France, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire. Caused by Russia’s wishes to institute a protectorate over Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire, its occupation of Moldavia and Walachia led to Turkey declaring war. With over 650,000 lives lost, hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris. Anglo-Zulu War 1879 A.D. Cetshwayo (c. 18261884), King of the Zulus, led the Zulu army in a decisive victory over the British army, but was later defeated at Ulundi and captured. He was restored to central Zululand in 1883.