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MICROBIOLOGY LAB MANUAL Microbiology Lab 1-Creating Graphs and Tables in Science Names_______________________________________________________________________ Objectives - After completing this lab the student will be able to: 1. Properly prepare, title, and label a data table. 2. Properly prepare, title, and label a graph using EXCEL or another computer graphing tool. 3. Define dependent and independent variable. 4. Compare and contrast different types of graphs to represent data. 5. Evaluate and interpret data presented in tables and/or graphs. Science deals with data, facts, and conclusions or predictions from those facts. In order to effectively communicate data, it is often displayed in tables and illustrated using graphs. Just as a picture is worth a thousand words, so graphs and tables provide an efficient to way exhibit data and relationships between the data without using a lot of text. Explaining numerical data requires large amounts of written text and is sometimes hard to follow and a bit boring. The tables and graphs used organize data in a visual manner that often suggests a particular interpretation and makes the information more meaningful. There are many different designs for graphs but the three main types are shown below. Describe in your own words the meaning and purpose of each of these types of graphs. Pie Graph = Graph Type Bar Graph = 100 80 60 East 40 W est 20 North 0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Page 1 Line Graph = Dr Janet Fulks Bakersfield College August 2010 MICROBIOLOGY LAB MANUAL As the data becomes more complicated the visual display may become more complex. Sample Graphs used in Healthcare from www.cdc.gov Pie Graphs Stacked Bar Graph Lab Assignment: 1. Can you briefly describe the data being reported in the stacked bar graph? 2. What point do you think the author of the graph is trying to highlight? 3. Below is a common graph used in healthcare. If you were examining a 24 month old Page 2 baby boy who was 26 pounds and 36 inches long, what would you conclude about the child? Dr Janet Fulks Bakersfield College August 2010 Page 3 MICROBIOLOGY LAB MANUAL Dr Janet Fulks Bakersfield College August 2010 MICROBIOLOGY LAB MANUAL Most computers have a graphing function built into one of the software programs. I prefer EXCEL but you may use whatever is available on your computer. If you have none, and graphing is new to you, you may explore the National Center for Educational Statistics at http://nces.ed.gov/nceskids/Graphing/ and review basic graphing skills. EXCEL is loaded on all the computers in the BC computer labs. A simple tutorial is available at Help with Graphing Using the data provided by the instructor create a data table and graph in a computer graphing tool. Double check the all the labeling and that you have used the correct graph. Be prepared to describe some conclusions about the data you were assigned. There are 10 points possible for this lab. Expected Outcome Unsatisfactory did not meet expectations DevelopingAccomplished demonstrates demonstrates achievement Points partial completion of performance level of expectations Data table present A data table was but unclear or not present. incorrect. The data table is present, titled & labeled correctly, containing all the appropriate data. Correctly created a graph. A graph is present but it is not the A graph was not appropriate type of present. graph or is missing labels & title. The proper graph is present, titled & labeled correctly, containing all the appropriate data. Oral summary The data & The data & graph graph are are not analyzed & referenced. interpreted accurately The data & graph are correctly referenced & analyzed but based on the student’s knowledge alone. The data & graph are correctly referenced & analyzed. Appropriate conclusions are made within the confines of the data using outside information. EXCEL or graphing software to create the table & graph. The graph and table were created using a computer but they were incorrect or incomplete. The team successfully created a complete table and graph using the computer. Dr Janet Fulks The team created a table and graph using handwritten elements. Bakersfield College Page Correctly created a data table. 4 Described graphs and answered Questions August 2010 MICROBIOLOGY LAB MANUAL Page 5 Comments Dr Janet Fulks Bakersfield College August 2010