Mesopotamia Next Table of Contents • • • • • Sumerians Akkadians Babylonians Kassites Hittites Previous • • • • • Assyrians Chaldeans Persians Phoenicians Hebrews Next Where is the Fertile Crescent? • The heart land of the middle East • Stretched from the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea as far as Egypt. • Present day Iraq http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/SUMER.HTM Previous Index Next Why is it called the Fertile Crescent? • The two rivers ensured successfully farming made the land fertile • The shape of the area http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/SUMER.HTM Previous Index Next What was the region called between the Tigris and Euphrates? • Mesopotamia – Means “Land between the rivers” • 4000 BC people called the Sumerians lived in small city-states called UR • City States – An independent selfgoverning political unit. Previous Index Next Political Organization • Refers to that system of making decisions controlling internal conflicts and regulating relations with other groups • Who was the leader of the Sumerians? • King Gilgamesh • Monarchy – One ruler; King or Queen • How did Gilgamesh use propaganda? Previous Index Next Language • A system of sounds and symbols which, when combined, can generate comprehensive multimodal communication of an infinite number of subjects. • Cuneiform – Wedge – shaped marks on clay – symbols • Scribes – Writers Previous Index Next Religion • A system of ideas or thought utilized to explain the world and cosmos and people’s relation to it. • Polytheism– beliefs in many Gods • Sumerians explained natural events as the result of actions by gods and goddesses ex. Floods To explain the unexplainable…. Previous Index Next Architecture • At the center of each Sumerian city was a temple, called a Ziggurat • Ziggurat – “Mt. of God” Previous Index Next Akkadian Empire • City-state- Akkad • Sargon I the leader of the Akkadian Empire • Empire- a group of countries under one ruler • How did Sargon I use propaganda? http://www.crystalinks.com/akkadia.html Previous Index Next Babylon Empire • City State – Babylonia • Identify - Henry Rawlinson English Scholar – Who translated the Babylonian writings into Persians • Who was the leader of the Babylonians? • Hammurabi http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/old world/middle_east/babylonians.html Previous Index Next Code of Laws • Hammurabi – developed a system of code of laws • It was based on the principal of “An Eye For An Eye” • Punishment = Crime • How did Hammurabi use propaganda? 1. Sun/Justice God Shamash 2. Code of Laws Previous Index Next Laying Down the Law • Law 1 • State one of Hammurabi’s laws from the selection of laws • Write the law in your own words • Compare the law to one of the laws in the US • Contrast the law to one of the laws in the US Previous Index Next Kassites • • • • Location: Persia, present day Iran Leader: Gandash How did Gandash use propaganda? Retained the Babylonian culture http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Kassites. html Previous Index Next Hittites • • • • • Location: Asia-Minor Leaders: Suppiluliumus and Muwatallis How did these leaders use propaganda? First to use iron weapons- smelting Signed the first written treaty with the Egyptians- Muwatallis and Ramses II http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/hittiteref.html Previous Index Next Assyrians http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/brief.htm • Where is Assur? • What was the capital of the Assyrian Empire? • Who was the Leader of the Assyrian empire? • How was the Assyrian army different from other armies? • How did the leaders use propaganda? Previous Index Next Assyrians Continued • Who did the Assyrians borrow the idea of smelting? • Define provinces. • What are the Present day countries that made up the Assyrian empire? http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/brief.htm Previous Index Next Chaldeans http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/ middle_east/nebuchadnezzar.html • Location: Southern part of Mesopotamia Capital: Babylon • Why did Chaldeans call themselves Babylonians? They were descendents of the people who made up Hammurabi’s empire. • Who was their king? • Nebuchadnezzar Previous Index Next Chaldeans Continued • How did Nebuchadnezzar use propaganda? – 1. He built the hanging gardens of Babylon for his wife. – 2. To please the people he built a street for the god Marduk. http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/middle_ east/nebuchadnezzar.html Previous Index Next Persian Empire • • • • • • I. The Persians II. Army and Empire III. Government Officials IV. Family Life V. Religion VI. Trade http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_people Previous Index Next Phoenicians • Carriers of civilizations- 700 BC • Location: eastern Mediterranean coastPresent day- Lebanon • Carriers of civilizations- established trade routes. They visited other civilizations by doing this they introduced their civilization. • Leader: Dido http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia /history/phoenicians.htm Previous Index Next Phoenicians Accomplishments • Alphabet • Royal Color • Ship Building http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia /history/phoenicians.htm Previous Index Next Hebrews http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/hebre ws.html • • • • Location: From UR to Canaan Identify Yahweh - God Abraham – Leader of the Hebrews. He lead the Hebrews to Canaan. • Why did the Hebrews leave Canaan? • There was a drought. Previous Index Next http://www.earlychristi anwritings.com/hebre ws.html Hebrews Continued • Moses – He led the Hebrews out of Egypt. However, Moses died before reaching Canaan. • Joshua- He led the Hebrews to Promise Land. • Saul- He was the first king. • David- He reunited the Hebrews. • Solomon-He extended trade and treaties with other civilizations. • Gradually they became weak enough for Next others to conquer. Previous Index Do You Know Your World Cult? 1. What was the civilization that introduced iron weapons? 2. What were the two civilizations and their leaders who signed the first written treaty in history? 3. What does Mesopotamia mean? 4. Who created the world’s first empire? 5. Where did the Sumerians first settle? 6. Who developed a law code in Babylonia? 7. What were the Assyrians military techniques? 8. Who was the Chaldean king and what did he create? 9. Explain “carriers of civilization”? 10. What is the royal color? 11. Who led the Exodus? 12 Name the ancient and present day countries. Previous Index Next Bibliography • • • • • • • • • • http://wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/SUMER.HTM http://www.crystalinks.com/akkadia.html http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/middle_east/babylonians.h tml http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Kassites.html http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/hittite-ref.html http://www.aina.org/aol/peter/brief.htm http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/middle_east/nebuchadnezzar.ht ml http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Persian_people http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/westasia/history/phoenicians.htm http://www.earlychristianwritings.com/hebrews.html Previous Index Next Biography • Bryan Bossler is a world cultures teacher for the Daniel Boone Area School District. He has been teaching for twenty-six years. • He holds a Masters degree in Education from Kutztown University. Also, Bachelors of Arts degree from Alvernia University. He has nine credits towards Principal certification. • He has been the class advisor, team leader, team mentor, middle school emergency operational planning chairperson, principal selection committee, teacher selection committee, and district sick leave chairperson. • He has coached varsity boys basketball for twenty years. The End Always make connections even back to this lesson Previous Index Remember Mr. Bossler lived during these times.