Geography Models Preparing for the AP Human Geography Exam Models, Models, Models Let’s review them all! What do we always say about models? This is a model Is this what most men & women look like? It’s the same way with models in geography… Geography models are simply theoretical representations of the built environment Johann von Thunen 1783-1850, German economist who proposed an agricultural model on how farmers choose their crops or animals. Farmers compare two costs, the cost of the land versus the cost of transporting products to market. Prepared a model on the spatial arrangement of different crops/animals around the city center. Von Thunen’s Land Use Model •1826- von Thunen •According to the model, a commercial farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to raise based on market location. •Farmer takes into account two costs: cost of land v. cost of transportation •The goods that are expensive to ship or are perishable will be closer to the central city while the goods that need lots of land or are inexpensive to ship will be farther from the central city. Von Thunen Agriculture Model Land rent or cost = Bid Rent Labor costs Transport costs (distance to market) Production costs The market is a central Isolated State The Isolated State is surrounded by forest The terrain is homogeneous, flat, has no rivers or mountains. Soils/climate are even and consistent Farmers behave rationally to maximize profits Location Theory Distance Decay and Friction of Distance Predicting where something should be located This can be on the local, regional, national or global scale von Thünen looked at locations of primary industries, but secondary industries locations are more complicated Secondary industry locations include human behaviors and decision making – political, cultural, economic factors Profit is the primary motivator Variable Costs – energy, transport, labor and others Alfred Weber 1868-1958, German economic geographer Ideas similar to von Thunen in terms of industrial locations The Least Cost Theory, accounts for the location of a manufacturing plant in terms of the owners desire to minimize three categories of cost – Transportation Labor Agglomeration (when enterprises cluster in the same area and provide assistance to each other through shared talents, services, and facilities). Weber’s Least Cost Theory – 3 primary factors of location (to minimize costs) Transportation – the lowest possible costs in moving raw materials to the factory and the finished product to market Labor – this reduces profits, therefore owners may want to move farther from raw materials and markets Agglomeration – like industries clustering in the same area(s) can reduce costs. Existing infrastructure (transport, phones, water, buildings, etc.) Deglomeration – what happens when too much agglomeration takes place? Other Factors – political stability, cheap energy, local receptiveness (locating a prison), taxation (exemptions), free land, climate (LA and film industry), local mores (brewery, sex shops, etc.), owner’s local connections to area Weber’s Least Cost Theory Definition: Model developed according to the location of manufacturing establishments is determined by the minimization of three critical expenses: 1. labor 2. transportation 3. agglomeration (a process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. Often refers to businesses that benefit from proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.) Walter Christaller German geographer Central Place Theory --model that would show how and where central places in the city should be located Used hexagons to determine range and threshold of business/services. Christaller looked at the arrangement of urban place and functions. He started trying to model what he saw. \ http://myfundi.co.za/e/Settlements_II:_Rural_settlements&usg Arrangement and Spacing of Urban Places Circular shapes resulted in unserved or overlapped areas Hexagons had no gaps or overlaps This suggests an inverse relationship of higher order and lower order settlements (towns and cities) Theoretically, settlements will be equidistant from each other In other words, big towns/cities are Central Place Theory Definition: A theory of Walter Christaller that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of people’s shopping behavior. It explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed. The smallest settlements in an urban system will provide only those goods and services that meet everyday needs (bakery and dairy products, and groceries) and that these small settlements will be situated relatively close to one another because consumers, assumed to be spread throughout the countryside, will not be prepared to travel far for such items. On the other hand, people will be willing to travel farther for more expensive, less frequently purchased items usually found in the larger settlements. Range and Threshold are taken into account when deciding where to place a business. Hotelling’s Model http://www.answers.com/topic/hotelling-model Concept of Locational Interdependence Suppose there is a beach a mile long There are two ice cream vendors Where would they locate on the beach to maximize their sales? Hotelling Model on the landscape http://www.startribune.com/local/south/176188911.html?refer=y E.W. Burgess American sociologist of the 1920’s Developed the Concentric Zone Model describing how a city grows outward from a central area in a series of concentric rings – CBD Zone in transition Zone of working class homes Zone of better residences Commuters zone Characteristics of Concentric Zone en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ernest_Burgess Burgess studied 1920s Chicago to make this model 5 concentric zones Burgess suggested that immigrants lived in inner zones which caused affluent residents to move farther out Invasion and Succession Concentric Zone’s weakness is that it does not allow for change in the city Concentric Zone does not allow for physical geographic barriers Concentric Zone Model Definition: A city grows outward from a central city in a series of concentric rings. The rings denote different classes of people. 1st is the CBD 2nd is the zone of transition containing industry and poorer houses 3rd is the working-class zone containing modest homes with working class families 4th is the middle class with newer spacious homes 5th is the commuter zone Homer Hoyt Land economist of the late 1930’s Developed a model of city structure based on series of sectors Certain areas of the city are more attractive for various activities, thus as city grows activities expand outward in wedges or sectors from the center – CBD Transportation and industry Low-class residential Middle-class residential High-class residential Hoyt Sector Model Late 1930s Answered the drawbacks of Burgess Model Hoyt said growth created pie-shaped urban structure Hoyt said his pie-shaped zones could reach from the Core (CBD) to the edge of the city (e.g. low rent sector 3 from CBD to outskirt of city) Sector Model says that the CBD is not as important as Burgess indicated Sectors were developed along transport routes (e.g. highways, RRs, etc.) Sector Model Definition: The city develops in a series of sectors, not rings. As a city grows, activities expand outward in a wedge from the center. Many areas are more attractive for various activities. Social classes are found in sectors of a city, not in the rings from the inside out. Thomas Malthus 1766-1834, English economist proposed that the world’s rate of population increase was far outrunning the development of food supplies. In other words, population is growing geometrically while food is increasing arithmetically. Malthus’ Principle of Population as it affects the future Malthus’ Principle of Population as it affects the future What Malthus said: • population grows geometrically while food production grows arithmetically • according to Malthus, these growth rates would produce the following relationships between food and people in the future: • Today 1 person, 1 unit of food • 25 years from now 2 persons, 2 units of food • 50 years from now 4 persons, 3 units of food • 75 years from now 8 persons, 4 units of food • 100 years from now 16 persons, 5 units of food • these predictions were made just after England became the first country to enter stage 2 of Demographic Transition Malthus’ Principle of Population as it affects the future Neo-Malthusians: 1. Population growth is increasing greatly in the poorer countries of the world because of medical growth not growth of wealth. They are not increasing their food production as quickly as they are their population 2. Population growth is stripping the world of many valuable resources like energy sources, not just food. Malthus’ Critics: 1. Boserup and Kuznets: Population growth could stimulate economic growth and bring about more food production. 2. Simon: Population stimulated economic growth. More people=more brains to invent things to improve life. 3. Marxists: No cause-effect relationship between the growth of population and economic development. Ester Boserup 1910-1999, Danish economist stated the population growth influences the distribution of types of subsistence farming. Subsistence farmers increase the supply of food through intensification of production through the … Adoption of new farming methods Land is left fallow for shorter periods E.G. Ravenstein 1834-1913, 19th century geographer who outlined 11 migration “laws”. To understand where and why migration occurs, Ravenstein’s “laws” can be organized into three groups… The reasons why migrants move The distance the typically move The characteristics of migrants Wilbur Zelinsky 1921 – present, American geographer identified a migration transition which consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition. International migration is a phenomenon of countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition. Internal migration is more important in stages 3 and 4 of the demographic transition. Immanuel Wallerstein 1930 – present, Sociologist Describes the plight between less developed countries and their relationship with more developed countries, aka World Systems Theory Describing a dynamic capitalist world economy from the 1500’s onward (feudalism on to colonialism on to capitalism). The core (capitalist) countries benefit from their relationships with the semi-periphery and periphery – which have varying degrees of dependence on the core. World Systems Theory • • • • • • • Immanuel Wallerstein The good news is that each sector is not necessarily static – can move from one sector to another 3 sectors that we have discussed before – These are relationships between countries – all three types need each other CORE SEMIPERIPHERY PERIPHERY But, who always wins? Core-Periphery Model C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman American geographers of the late 1940’s Developed the Mulitple Nuclei Model of urban structure. A city is a complex structure that includes more than once center around which activities revolve, thus it has several centers or nodes – CBD Wholesale Low-class residential Middle-class residential High-class residential Heavy manufacturing Outlying business district Residential suburb Industrial suburb Multiple Nuclei 1940s Harris & Ullman hypothesized the CBD was further losing its dominance CBD no longer the nucleus of the modern city, thus emergence of ‘nuclei’ Reflects decentralization and then re-nucleation of urban functions Nuclei are disconnected and do not necessarily rely on each other Multiple Nuclei Model Definition: A city is a complex structure that includes more than one center around which activities revolve. Examples of these nodes are a port, neighborhood business center, university, airport and park. Some activities are attracted to particular nodes, whereas others try to avoid them like things near universities and airports. World City Models Latin American City Model http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php?articleId=96 W.W. Rostow Economist of the 1950’s Proposed a five-stage model of development aka Rostow’s Development Model or the International Trade Approach – 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) The traditional society The preconditions for takeoff The takeoff The drive to maturity The age of mass consumption Rostow’s Modernization Model Sometimes called the Ladder of Development • • • • • • • Eurocentric and Americentric Doesn’t account for regional differences within a country Doesn’t account for cultural differences within a country Doesn’t account for one-commodity economies Neo-colonialism Major bias that all economies will grow the same way developed countries grew Rostow believed all countries would grow in an orderly fashion like Japan and Europe and the US did http://www.studyblue.com/notes/note/n/unit-6-vocabulary/deck/5285919 Dependency Theory • • • • • Political and economic relationships between countries and regions control and limit development possibilities Example – colonialism created… Dependent relationships between mother country and the occupied country These relationships sustain prosperity of the core country and poverty of the periphery country Gives rise to NEOCOLONIALISM in the 1970s, 80s and on to the present Alexander Humboldt & Carl Ritter German geographers (1770’s-1859) Urged human geographers to adopt the methods of scientific inquiry used by natural scientists. Concentrated on how the physical environment caused social development and thus Environmental Determinism. Jean Brunhes French geographer Major contributer to the cultural landscape tradition Cultural landscape geographers argue that each region has its own distinctive landscape that results from a unique combination of social relationships and physical processes. Example – Africa and its political/economic instability tied to its natural resources/physical features/political boundaries. Mackinder’s Heartland Theory and Spykman’s Rimland Theory Mackinder’s Heartland Theory and Spykman’s Rimland Theory Heartland Theory: Mackinder believed that a land-based power, not a sea-based power, would ultimately rule the world. He believed that Eurasia was the most important area in the world containing a “pivot area” extending from Eastern Europe to eastern Siberia. The “pivot area” became known as the Heartland. Who rules East Europe rules the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland rules the World Island. Who rules the World Island rules the World. Rimland Theory Spykman believed the Eurasia rim, not its heart, held the key to global power. He parodied Mackinder: Who controls the Rimland rules Eurasia Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Spykman saw a divided rimland as a key to the world’s balance of power. Today the rimland includes Western Europe and China The Demographic Transition Demographic Transition Model – page 54 http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/population_settlement/population/imagesetc/demographic_transition.jpg Demographic Transition http://envirosci.net/111/population/demographic_phases.jpg The Demographic Transition Stage One: CBR- very high CDR- very high NIR- low Population Growth: Low Movement from Stage One to Stage Two: MDC- Industrial Revolution LDC- Medical Revolution Stage Two: CBR- very high CDR- plummets NIR- high Population Growth: High Movement from Stage Two to Stage Three: Changes in Social customs and improved technology Demographic Transition Stage Three: CBR: Drops quickly CDR: Falling put slower than before NIR: slows Population Growth: Moderate Movement from Stage Three to Stage Four: greater gender equity, more women working and improved birth control Stage Four: CBR: low CDR: low NIR: low Population Growth: Low Demographic Transition Examples of Countries and Regions of each stage of demographic transition: Stage One: None Stage Two: Sub-saharan Africa Nigeria, Sierra Leon, Cape Verde Stage Three: East Asia, Latin America, Middle East China, Brazil, Mexico, Saudi Arabia, Chile Stage Four: Western Europe United Kingdon, Demnark Now, let’s apply the model Questions for the DTM Stage Descriptor Billy loses his job as a grave digger Parents start to think more about family planning Children are warmer in bed at night because they have more brothers and sisters There are more Golden Anniversaries Large percentage of women never have a child A mother sobs over the grave of her last six children who died in a typhoid epidemic A lot more houses are being built The Public Health Inspector smiles as the building of sewers are completed Fewer children share a bedroom Grandparents are very rare There are no brothers/sisters, no aunts/uncles, no cousins Features of an age-sex diagram or population pyramid •Population is divided into 5 year age groups or cohorts •Population is divided into males (left) and females (right) •The percentage of each age/sex group is given •Let’s look some up on our smart devices and computers Rapid, Slow and Zero Growth http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/harvey/lect/images/agestructure.gif High fertility and mortality = broad base Low fertility and mortality = narrow base Terms you know but have not heard of???? Give examples… Devolution – the de-evolution of political powers from one authority to another. Syncretism – blending old and new parts of culture together, aka acculturation. Forward capital or forward thrust capital – purposeful movement of a national capital to a new location to benefit the government, economy and/or population. Enclave – foreign territory that perforates a larger state. Exclave – An outlying portion of one state, usually inside another country. Shatterbelt – region under continuous stress due to aggressive political or cultural rivalries aka balkanization. Supranational – greater political, economic and cultural power than local or national organizations/governments.