AP Sampling MC Review

Unit I-1 Multiple-Choice Review
For multiple choice questions place the best answer in the blank. For the remainder of the test, show all
work and answers on this paper. Remember that your explanations are important as well as your answers.
Communication is as important as correct answers.
In one study on the effect of niacin on cholesterol level, 100 subjects who
acknowledged being long-time niacin takers, had their cholesterol levels
compared with those of 100 people who had never taken niacin. In a second study,
50 subjects were randomly chosen to receive niacin and 50 were chosen to receive a placebo.
A pharmacist wants to study the effect of temperature (0, 30, 60, and 90F) on the potency
of a headache pain reliever when it is stored for extended periods of time. Thirty pills were
randomly assigned to each of the temperatures for a specified storage time. The time it took to
gain relief from a headache was measured for each pill. Which of the following is the correct
description of the treatment, experimental unit, and the response, respectively?
The first study was a controlled experiment, while the second was an
observational study.
The first study was an observational study, while the second was a
controlled experiment.
Both studies were controlled experiments.
Both studies were observational studies.
Each study was part controlled experiment and part observational study.
Specific temperature, pill, relief time
Specific temperature, the pharmacist, relief time
Pill, relief time, specific temperature
Random assignment, pill, relief time
Specific temperature, relief time, pill
Students in AP Statistics want to determine the percentage of Greenhill students who live in the
city of Dallas. There are 1248 students in the school. Given a list of all the Legacy Groups in the
school, the students randomly select one student from each group to be part of the survey. This
sampling method can be described as
A systematic sample
A simple random sample
A cluster sample
A stratified random sample
An observational sample study
We want to draw a sample of 5 drivers from a population of 50 drivers who have been convicted
of speeding. If the drivers are labeled 01, 02, 03, …, 50 and the following line is used from a
random number table.
Which of the following represents the sample of 5 drivers, starting from the left?
A politician is considering running for public office. She wants to measure her name recognition
by doing a survey in her district. Which of the following survey methods would produce unbiased
The politician stands in front of a grocery store in her district on Saturday morning and
asking each person entering the store if he or she recognizes her name.
Place pollsters in front of every grocery store in her district on Saturday morning and
asking each person entering the store if he or she recognizes the politician’s name.
Sending a survey card to all registered voters in her district asking them to call a number
to state whether or not they recognize the politician’s name.
Calling people from her district listed in the phone book and asking each if he or she
recognizes the politician’s name.
Gather a random sample of eligible voters in her district, visit their homes, and ask each
if he or she recognizes the politician’s name.
For which of the following purposes would it be most unreasonable to use a census?
22, 36, 8, 46, 32
22, 46, 25, 30, 27
22, 36, 25, 30, 27
22, 36, 46, 32, 39
22, 23, 36, 46, 32
To determine the mean selling price of houses in your neighborhood.
To determine the proportion of red snappers with a high mercury level in the Gulf of
To determine the difference between the proportion of engineering professors and the
proportion of business professors in favor of a new teaching initiative at a large
To determine the mean wage earned by construction workers in a small town.
To determine the proportion of students with a learning disability in a small rural high
A teacher believes that giving his students a practice quiz every week will motivate them to study
harder, leading to an overall understanding of the course material. He tries this technique for a
year, and everyone in the class achieves a grade of at least C. Is this an experiment or a study?
An experiment, but with no reasonable conclusion possible about cause and effect.
An experiment, thus making cause and effect a reasonable
An observational study, because there was no use of a control
An observational study, but a poorly designed one because
randomization was not used.
An observational study, and thus a reasonable conclusion of
association but no of cause and effect.
A major automobile manufacturer is trying to improve customer service at its dealerships across
the United States. 200 randomly selected customers in Arizona who recently purchased a vehicle
from this manufacturer were asked if they were satisfied with the customer service at the
dealership. Is it reasonable to generalize the results of this survey to the population of all
customers in the U. S. who had purchased a vehicle from this manufacturer?
In a clinical trial, 30 sickle-cell patients are randomly assigned to two groups. One group is then
randomly assigned the currently marketed medicine, and the other group receives the experimental
medicine. Each week patients report to the clinic where blood tests are conducted. The lab
technician is unaware of the kind of medicine the patient is taking and the patient is also unaware
which medicine he/she has been given. This design can be described as
A completely randomized design, with the currently marketed medicine and the
experimental medicine as the two treatments.
A matched-pairs design, with the currently marketed medicine and the experimental
medicine forming a pair
A randomized block design, with the currently marketed medicine and the experimental
medicine as the two blocks.
A randomized block design, with the currently marketed medicine and the experimental
medicine as the two treatments
A randomized block design, in which blinding occurs.
In a clinic, 50 patients with sleep disorders are randomly assigned to one of two different groups.
Patients in one group are given medication before bedtime. Patients in the other group are given
blindfolds and soft music is played at bedtime. Each patient is attached to a machine that records
breathing patterns. From the patterns, it is possible to determine if the patient is awake or asleep.
The data will be used to decide which method is more effective in helping patients with sleep
disorders. Which of the following statements is correct in the context of this experiment?
No, because only one sample was taken.
No, because customers were only sampled from one state.
No, because 200 is not a very large sample.
Yes, because a random sample was taken.
Yes, because the manufacturer sells these vehicles all over the U. S.
This is a single blind experiment, since only one group uses blindfolds
This is a single blind experiment, because only patients and not doctors use blindfolds
This is a double-blind experiment since patients are blindfolded and the doctor does not
know which patient receives which treatment
This experiment cannot be a single blind experiment, because many patients do not like
being blindfolded
This experiment cannot be a double blinded, because patients will know which treatment
they are receiving, although the examining doctor will not.
A study of existing records of 27,000 automobile accidents involving children in Michigan found that
about 10 percent of children who were wearing a seatbelt (group SB) were injured and that about 15
percent of children who were not wearing a seatbelt (group NSB) were injured. Which of the following
statements should NOT be included in a summary report about this study?
Driver behavior may be a potential confounding variable.
The child’s location in the car may be a potential confounding variable.
This study was not an experiment, and cause-and-effect inferences are not warranted.
This study demonstrates clearly that seat belts save children from injury.
Concluding that seatbelts save children from injury is risky, at least until the study is
independently replicated.
The makers of Save-More Showerheads claim that their showerhead will save water and therefore
save money on water bills. They cite evidence from a recent study where sales records from a
home improvement center were used to identify customers who had purchased a Save-More
Showerhead. Twenty of the customers were contacted and 19 indicated that they used less water in
the month following the installation of the showerhead. Which of the following statements best
describes the claim made by the makers of the showerheads?
A large telecommunications company wants to improve employee productivity. Studies have
shown that exercise could help. The company decides to offer two different types of programs
during the workday. One program is an aerobics class for 30 minutes; the other is a weight room
session for 30 minutes. Employees can choose the program in which they want to participate. If
the company truly wants to find out if exercise during the day improves worker productivity, what
else is needed in the study?
It is valid. The evidence shows lower water use by nearly all of the customers.
It is invalid because not enough customers were included in the survey.
It is invalid because changes in water usage due to the showerhead are confounded with
other variables.
It is invalid because Save-More should have sold more than one type of showerhead.
It is invalid because no other brands of showerheads were include din the study.
A third type of exercise, as more treatments will yield more reliable information.
A control group that does not exercise in order to determine if an increase in productivity
was actually due to one of the treatments.
Random assignment of employees to treatment groups, instead of allowing employees to
I only
II only
III only
I and III only
II and III only
A radio station is interested in predicting the proportion of registered voters who support an
increase in the state sales tax to construct additional regional parks across the state. Listeners of
the station’s programs were asked to go to the station’s web site and indicate whether they favored
or opposed such an increase. 1744 listeners logged on and 922 (53%) were against the increase.
Which one of the following is NOT a correct statement about possible bias in the sampling
Only people with Internet access would be counted.
1744 is quite a large sample so any bias that might have occurred can be overcome.
Only people listening to the station would be counted.
Those who responded may not even be registered voters.
It is likely that only those who feel passionately about the proposal would respond.
Unit I-1 Multiple Choice Review Solutions
1. B
2. A
3. D
4. C
5. E
6. B
7. A
8. B
9. A
10. E
11. D
12. C
13. E
14. B