ALLUSION DEFINITION: • An ALLUSION is a reference to a famous person, historical moment, literary text, or pop culture event/person/thing. In a broad sense—it is a reference to something that is (or should be) culturally known. • ALLUSIONS are used in literature all the time to help make cultural connections to the reader as well as to ‘say a lot’ with fewer words. TYPES OF ALLUSIONS • Mythology: Achilles‘ Heel, Cupid, Pandora’s Box • Biblical: Cain and Abel, Good Samaritan, Forbidden Fruit • Literature: Scrooge, Jekyll and Hyde, Romeo • Historical: Benedict Arnold, Utopia, Nazi PURPOSE? • Allusions Culturally Connect Us! • If we do not understand an allusion we cannot understand the author. EXAMPLES: WHAT IS BEING SAID THROUGH THESE ALLUSIONS? • "Sea of the Rivers of Story" is the English equivalent of Kathāsaritsāgara, the title of an 11th-century collection of Indian legends. • Another obvious reference is to the stories of One Thousand and One Nights. Haroun, the son of Rashid Khalifa refers to Harun al-Rashid, a caliph who ruled from 786 to 809 and who features frequently in Thousand and One Nights stories. • The Walrus plays off of The Beatles song, "I am the Walrus". • Haroun encounters a warrior who is fighting his own shadow. This is possible a reference to J.M Barrie's Peter Pan. ALICE IN WONDERLAND • The Walrus • The Pages as compared to the Queen and her Court (cards) ~ both are extended metaphors used in similar ways • The Language of wordplay, puns, and seeming nonsense. • Time, especially time stopped (The Mad Tea Party and the wordplay involving time). THEY WANT EFX • What allusions must you recognize in order to understand the song? • What is Das Efx’s (the rapper) purpose? What is trying to say though these allusions? THE TWILIGHT STRIP • The Twilight Zone • In pairs, discuss the history of The Gaza Strip. How does this influence your understanding of The Twilight Strip? What is Rushdie saying through this allusion? SOUND FAMILIAR? • Jimmy Cross (JC), suffers for the sake of the entire platoon. • Cross bears the grief of Lavender’s death for the members of his troop. • Cross makes a sacrifice so that his fellow men— Norman Bowker and Kiowa, in this case—can carry on without being crippled by grief and guilt. JIMMY CROSS AS A CHRIST FIGURE? • Jimmy Cross (JC)is in charge of and watches over a group of men, similar to Jesus and his apostles • Jimmy Cross suffers for his platoon, similar to Jesus suffering for his disciplines, and all of mankind. • The only characters that are directly identified as friends of Jesus in the Gospel of John are Martha, Mary, and Lazarus: “Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.” John 11:5 • Why might O’Brien be comparing Cross to Christ? What is being said about Cross?