Ancient Civilizations

Ancient Civilizations
Running from
3500 B.C.E. to C.E.500
The Fertile Crescent
• Where was it located?
• What was it known for?
• What happened to it?
“The Fertile Crescent”
• A piece of land stretching from eastern Mediterranean
sea to the Persian Gulf
• Located between Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
• Its soil is rich, great for farming.
• This area is shaped like a “crescent”.
• Mesopotamia (Land between the rivers) lies to the east
• Mediterranean section les to the west
• “Empire-”- groups of different lands and peoples under
one ruler.
• “City State”- an area that included a city and the farms
and villages around it.
The Sumerians
4000 BC- 1st people in Fertile Crescent
Settled in Lower Mesopotamia
Built “City-States”
1st to use wheeled vehicles in trade, farming, warfare
1st to use the arch in buildings
Invented first system of writing- “Cuneiform”- wedgeshaped writing- over 700 different symbols
• Symbols stood for a name of something, and idea, or a
• Decoded by Sir Henry Rawlinson-1846
Worshipped many gods
Kings were treated as gods
Gilgamesh and the great flood
King Sargon
Skilled Builders & Artists
Army was supplied with weapons
Metals, stones, & wood were obtained by
• Studied math & science ( a year has 360
Ziggurat at Ur
• Name two things the Sumerians were the first
to use?
• What is a Ziggurat?
• What is the first system of writing called?
• What was their religion like?
Babylonian Empire
(2000 B.C.E.)
• First to build temples to honor their gods
• Hammurabi’s Code (law)
Hammurabi Law Code shows:
1. A stern sense of justice – The code had the principle of "an eye for an eye"
and demanding severe punishment for crimes - bribery, theft, dishonest
weights and measures, and damage to another's property.
2. A sharp division of classes – The code provided harsher punishment for an
offense against a noble or priest than for the same offense against a common
person - an artisan, merchant, farmer, or slave
3. A fair treatment of women - Permited them to own property and engage in
business. However, the code strictly regulated the behavior of women. It
expected a woman to remain in her husband's home and be dependent on
him. A husband, however, had a legal duty to support his wife. The code also
gave a father nearly unlimited authority over his children. The Babylonians
believed that an orderly household headed by a strong father was necessary
for a stable empire.
4. An advanced business society- established regulations for protecting
property and business contracts, limiting interest on loans, and setting wages
for workers.
Other Babylonian contributions:
• Astronomy- lunar calendar, 12 month year, 7
day week, 24 hour day.
• Arithmetic- based on number 60
– 60 minute hour, 360 degree circle
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Review for Babylonian Empire
• Name two specific science or math ideas the
Babylonians came up with?
• True or False- They were the first to build
temples for their Gods?
• What ruler created the first law code?
Hittite Empire ( 1750 B.C.E.)
• Conquered from modern day Turkey
• Among the first to use iron for
weapons & tools
• Signed the first treaties with other
groups like Egyptians
• System of law that required
payments of fines for crimes or
Hittites came from the north
-iron region
The importance of iron
• Hittites used iron to conquer the
Babylonians who had bronze weapons. It
was the “super weapon” of its time and
they hid the secret of how to make it for
Hittite Warriors
Revenge vs laws
They lived on either side of the Tug Fork: "Devil Anse"
Hatfield of West Virginia and Randolph "Ranel"
McCoy of Kentucky. Two families of spirited stock
locked together in a deadly private feud
Compare /contrast
• Write down the main
differences between
the Hittites and the
• What are three “firsts” for the Hittites?
• What are three
similarities between our
calendar and the
Babylonian calendar?
• Why is a law code
based on rules better
than a system of justice
based on revenge?
Phoenicia Empire
( 1200 B.C.E.)
• It became strong because Egyptian and Hittites were
fighting each other
• Traded goods all over the Mediterranean, spreading their
goods & ideas and those of whom they trade with
• Carthage- greatest city
• Invented a 22 symbol alphabet that was around sounds
-later used by Greeks and later became roots of what we
use today
• Developed artistic skills ( carving ivory & stained glass)
The Alphabet
• What are three important characteristics of
this civilization?
Hebrew (1200-600 B.C.)
Never had a large empire
History written in Old Testament
Ten commandments
Recorded the Bible
High moral behaviors, set new standards
Prophets fought for justice of the weak & poor
Saul, David, Solomon- strong rulers
Solomon’s temple at Jerusalem
Hebrew’s end
Solomon’s death- kingdom splits
Civil wars
63 BC becomes part of Roman Empire
Jerusalem destroyed
1948 AD – Israel re-born again
• Who were the Hebrews?
• How do we know about them?
• Name and discuss one famous Hebrew leader.
• Chaldeans of Babylonia come in
• Nebuchadnezzar II (mentioned in the Bible for the first time)rebuilt city of Babylon
• He built “Hanging Gardens” –one of the 7 wonders of the
ancient world.
• Astrology, movement of planets & stars effects human life,
creation of the “zodiac”
• Astrology lead to the discovery of Astronomy
• 561 BC Nebuchadnezzar dies- empire declines,
• 539 BC Persian Empire comes in
Persia Empire
( 550 B.C.E.)
Modern day Iran descendents
Cyrus the Great
Conquers Asia Minor & Fertile
Divided huge empire into provinces
Built roads & canals to improve trade
Conquered by Alexander the Great
• Zoroaster- started Zoroasterism
-1 god “Ahura Mazda in battle with evil forces of
-Humans make decisions on which side
-One day Ahura Mazda will win and judge all
-Good go to Heaven, evil go to Hell
- “Avesta” ( a religious book based on the beliefs of
prophet Zoroaster)
Review for early civilizations
See Powerpoints
See Mesopotamia packet
See unit outline handout
Know your vocabulary
Stop here
• What do you know?
HihAssyrian Empire
(1350 B.C.E.)
1100-650 BC
Excellent soldiers
Calvary, iron weapons
Cruel leaders of those conquered
• Built first system of roads
• Began provincial governments
• Established first library
• Conquered by Chaldeans and Persians
(pg #1) - main ideas of the paragraph
-main ideas
-main ideas
-main idea
(pg. #2) main idea
- “wadis”- a dry riverbed
(pg. 1) -Very hot in Egypt
-four thousand miles long
-2 branches- Blue Nile (mtns. of Ethiopia), White Nile(Lake Victoria)
-Nile flows Northward
-River provides food, transportation.
(pg.2)-”The Gift of the Nile”
-desert covers 96% of Egypt
-”wadis”- dry riverbeds
Natural geographical buffers = dry hot heat, huge sea, swamps in the
north, rapids and waterfalls
- For 2000 years Egypt invaded only 3 times
- *Buffers = major reason Egypt flourished
-Gave us basic ideas: geometry, mathematics, astronomy,
-architecture ideas – columns, fortresses, drawbridges,
-domestication of cats, honey bees, carrier pigeons,
-tanning of leather, glass making, mosquito netting, canal and lake
construction, paper, study of human anatomy, solar calendar,
scientific method of study
Egypt (3000 B.C.E.)
• Only civilization to continue to today
• 2700-2100 Old Kingdom:Great Pyramids &
Sphinx are built
• 2100-1800 Middle Kingdom: Irrigation &
canals built; conquered by invaders
• 1600-1100 New Kingdom: conquered many
lands, became a great empire, begins to
Made paper from papyrus
Invented the calendar
Built Great Pyramids
Invented shaduf ( a crane-like device)
Used a loom to weave cloth
Invented hieroglyphics
Ancient Greece
(500 B.C.E.)
The Golden Age of Athens
The Golden Age of Pericles
Contributions of Greece
• First democracy
• Scientific approach to
• First dramas
• Rules of Geometry
• Philosophy
• Literature & Poetry
• Written Histories
• City-States/voting
• Hippocrates
Euripides & Sophocles
Euclid & Elements
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Homer & Sappho
More Contributions of
• Studied & classified plants
• Created magnificent buildings &
• Architecture uses columns (Doric,
Corinthian, and Ionic)
• Democracy- a form of government in
which the people rule
• Direct Democracy- citizens participate
in passing the laws
• Representative
are chosen to represent the people
• Only males 18 or older can attend
assembly & vote
• No women
• No slaves
• No males from other countries
Peloponnesian War
Between Sparta & Athens
Fought for control of Greece
Lasted 27 years
Sparta won!
Sparta v Athens
• Women equal to men
• Taught to be loyal to
the state & obey orders
• Mandatory military
service for 60 years
• Subservient women
• Taught to question
existence (philosophy)
• Choice of occupations
• Loyalty over all else
• Logic First & foremost
King Philip II of Macedonia
Defeated the Greek city-states after they were
weakened by the Peloponnesian War.
He united all the city-states under one rule,
along with Macedonia.
Philip II was murdered (awwwwww…)
Alexander the Great
• Became king after his father
was murdered
• Between age 20 & 22, he defeated King
Darius and the Persian Empire
• Alexander’s Empire was now largest in
the world! ( It extended from Greece to
India, including Alexandria in Egypt)
• He died at age 32.$126