ModHistQingPres - Trinity Christian School


Modern East Asia: State and

Empire Building

1. Confucius (Kong fu zi) the Sage

Image from

2. Basic Confucian Teachings

Cardinal Virtues

ren (charity,

(benevolence, humanity)

li (principle, order, propriety)

xin (sincerity, faithfulness and integrity)

yi (uprightness, moral disposition to do good)

zhi (knowledge, moral wisdom)

• ALSO: xiao (filial piety,

“root of all virtue”)

Five Relationships

• Ruler/Subject

• Father/Son

• Older Brother/

Younger Brother

• Husband/Wife

• Friend-Friend

Government by virtuous example

• Rule by moral example, not by harsh laws and punishments

• Study exemplary moral examples (i.e. the sage kings, Yao,

Shun, Yu)

• History as moral edification

• Also,corrupt rulers/dynasties could lose the “Mandate of

Heaven” (i.e. Late

Ming natural disasters and rebellion)

3. Neo-Confucianism: Orthodoxy and


Zhu Xi (1130-1200) “School of

Principle (li)”

Wang Yangming (1472-1529)

“School of Mind”

4. Women and Confucianism

Perspective of Confucianism as oppressive to women (3 P’s, 3 Obediences)

Photo from

“Women in World History” website

Beijing Profesor, Yu Dan’s Reflections on

“The Analects” (2007)

Photo from China Daily 6/9/09

5. Christianity in China: Matteo Ricci (Li Madou):

Italian Jesuit hero and Chinese Christian Scholar

Matteo Ricci--Quarto Centenario (1610-2010)

Matteo Ricci’s World Map

(c. 1602)

Some of Ricci’s works and translations

• Several editions of world maps (1584,

1600, 1602)

• First full work in Chinese: On Friendship published in 1595

• Christian treatises, such as: The True

Meaning of the Lord of Heaven (Tianzhu

shiyi) and Doctrine of the Lord of Heaven

(Tianzhu Jiaoyao)

• Translations on math and science such as

Euclid’s Elements of Geometry, works on astronomy, and his own description of

China and the history of the Jesuit mission since 1579.

• Died in 1610, and the Wan-li Emperor granted him a burial plot in Beijing

• Controversies began after his death

6. Qing Conquest of the Ming and

Expansion of the Qing Empire

Nurgaci’s (1559-1626) family, the Aisin

Gioro, supported the Ming, but after they

“mistakenly” massacre a village, including his father and grandfather , he turned against them and spends the next 30 years uniting the Jurchen tribes and created his own kingdom using his military system of banners.

Hongtaiji (1592-1643), the 8th and literate son of Nurgaci, in 1835, bestowed the name “Manchu” (Manzhou) on the people in their kingdom and they became

“Eight Banner Manchus.” In 1636, he called his state the “Great Qing” (Da


Nurgaci, Qing Patriarch

Shunzhi Emperor’s reign (1643-1661)

Conquest of Ming Dynasty under Dorgon regency and Borjigid’s power, aided by rebels such as Li Zicheng and Ming generals such as Wu Sangui.

Hongtaiji Emperor

7. Qing Military: The Manchu Banner


“…the issue of Manchu identity is inextricably bound up with the Eight Banner system”

Edward J. M. Rhoads Manchus and Han (2000)

“Banner people” (qiren) were a hereditary group which continued to have a separate existence

(“administratively, occupationally, residentially, and socially” Rhoads, p. 35) into the 20 th century and the large ethnic Manzhou minority in China today comes from them.

The Manchu Banner System, cont…

Though the “banner people” were divided into three different groups of banners (Manchu, Mongol, Hanjun, of which the Manchu banners were the most prestigious, and the Hanjun the least prestigious) of Eight

Banners (24 total) there were many divisions/distinctions (from Edward

Rhoads’ Manchu and Han)

1.) Upper Three (Bordered Yellow, Yellow, White) were under the direct command of the emperor vs. Lower Five (Red, Bordered White, Bordered

Red, Blue, Bordered Blue) which were commanded by imperial princes

(until the Yongzheng reign)

2.) Old vs. New Banner people (Old usually refered to whether they submitted before or after the conquest of Ming China)

3.) Imperial lineage (both main line, Aisin Gioro, and collateral lines) vs. commoner bannermen

4.) Core banners vs. affiliated (frontier peoples) banners

5.) Metropolitan (in and around Beijing) Banners vs. provincial garrisons

6.) Banner soldiers and dependents.

Manchu Banner System, cont…

picture from

• Based on Manchu system of compass direction-color coordination:

Yellow=North, White=East, Red=West, Blue=South

--Thus, the banner people who lived in Beijing’s “Inner City” that surrounded the Forbidden City, lived on lands in these directions, with districts for each of the three ethnic groups, which was repeated in other areas where

“banner people” resided. (Eventually, half of the “banner people” were assigned in and around the capital). In urban centers (except in Manchuria), they lived in “Manchu cities.”

8. The Kangxi Emperor

• Kangxi Emperor (Aisin Gioro Xuanye, reigned 1662-1722), first regency of four generals, led by Oboi, 1667 takes power himself.

• Recording the Grandeur of the Qing Southern Inspections Tours of the Kangxi Emperor (and the Qianlong Emperor)

Confucian Scholar Conquering Khan Manchu Emperor

“Sacred Edict”-16 Maxims Quelled rebellions, Imperial Household Dept.

Conquered new territory

Images of the Kangxi Emperor, cont…

• Like his predecessors, he favored Catholic priests with positions relating to astronomy, cartography, and gunnery and tolerated their religion

• Jesuits taught him astronomy and mathematics personally from 1688, and he opened an Office of

Mathematics in 1713.

Korea: Imjin War

Hideyoshi’s Invasions (1592-1598)

• Large Japanese armies (200,000), better trained and equipped

• Larger Japanese ships and number of ships in their navies

• BUT: Popular resistance and guerilla tactics of the uibyong

“righteous armies”, Ming assistance

(over 50,000 troops), and Korean

naval victories (cut supply line from


• Japanese forces retreat to southern coast (near Pusan) and begin negotiations with the Ming, which last four years, and the breakdown of these leads to the second disastrous invasion of Hideyoshi’s forces in 1597

• Much of the peninsula, including

Seoul, was devastated by the conquest, famine, disease, and economic disruption

• 1592

Map from

Admiral Yi Sun-shin


• Trained as an army commander and sent to Northern Korea to deal with the Jurchen (Manchus)

• Spectacular victory in1592 where his navy sank or captured 59 out of

73 Japanese ships

• Japanese naval victory during second invasion in 1597 due to Yi’s imprisonment on false charges and replacement by incompetent rival

• After his reinstatement, at the

Battle of Myeongnyang Strait, Yi only had 13 ships (Japanese had estimated 130 warships). He eventually died from a stray bullet during the final battle.

• Was victorious in every naval engagement, and supposedly never lost a battle.

Yi Sun-shin—Korean National


Photo from

Naval victories and ironclad (or ironspiked) “turtle ships” (kobukson)

Images from Hardcore

Manchu Conquest of Choson Korea:


• Initially neutrality in contest between Manchus and Ming

• Western faction (pro-Ming) put

King Injo on the throne and the

Manchus invade in 1627 and again (more devastatingly) in

1636 after Korea failed to recognize Hongtaiji’s newly proclaimed Qing Dynasty

• King Injo captured, Korea is forced to end relations with the

Ming, use the Qing reign-names, send royal hostages, and begin tribute missions

• Tombs of King Sejong the Great and King Hyojong the Great in the same area.

• King Injo was forced to put up a monument where the

“submission ceremony” took place where it still stands today


Pictures from

• King Hyojong (1649-1659) returns from bitter experience as a hostage and secretly prepares militarily to attack the Qing, raising more than 100,000 troops, but unable to do so

Japan: The Three Unifiers/Pacifiers

Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu

(1534-1582) (1536-1598) (1543-1616)

The Unification of Japan by the Three

Unifiers: Oda/Toyotomi/Tokugawa

• Tokugawa Japan (somewhat simplistic map of Tokugawa domains on p. 89 of textbook)

• Classification of domains after

Sekigahara (1600) into shimpan,

fudai, and tozama domains (han)

• The Tokugawa bakufu (“tentgovernment”) owned about a quarter of Japan’s land (with their own samurai vassals) and the rest was indirectly administered, under the supervision of the roju (“senior councilors) and the various

metsuke (“censors” or


• Ieyasu issued a Code for Warrior

Households (Buke shohatto) in


The life of the daimyo Hosokawa

Tadaoki (Sansai)1564-1646

• Hosokawa Tadaoki

• Hosokawa Gracia

Tama (1563-1600)

From Saihai no Yukue Nintendo DS Strategy Adventure Game

Hosokawa and





c. Japan

• Shifting allegiances in the 16 th century

• Mobility of the daimyo and their

domains—from Kyoto to Miyazu

(near Ama-no-hashidate) to northern

Kyushu (Kokura) to Kumamoto

Samurai and the arts—castlebuilding, swordsmanship (Miyamoto

Musashi) poetry, tea (chado and Senno Rikyu) gardens (i.e. Suizenji), pottery (brought Korean potters to


• Religion and particularly Christianity was an important factor in this

period in Japanese history.

Hosokawa’s ironic role regarding

Christianity in Japan.

• Legacy of the daimyo in the 16 th -17 th

centuries—Governors of Kumamoto

Prefecture, Prime Minister Hosokawa

Morihiro (1993-94)

“The Christian Century” in Japan

• Christianity (Roman

Catholicism) in Japan:

--“The Christian Century”: 1549

(Xavier’s arrival) to 1638 (All foreigners forbidden except Dutch in Nagasaki)

--Prohibitions and Persecution:

1.)“closed country” sakoku policy and religion 2.) Shimabara

Rebellion—economic or religious rebellion of peasants 3.) harsh persecution,Japanese martyrdom, and the fumie test

--Legacy of the “Christian Century” in Japan: kakure kirishitan

(“hidden Christians”) and continued hostility to Christianity

(similar to China and Korea by the end of the 18 th century)

From “List of the 26 Martyrs in Nishizaka, Nagasaki”

Amakusa Shiro in Japanese Myth:

Tragic Hero or Possessed Villain?

Images from Wikipedia